Minnesota's Energy Future?©

Dell Erickson

Minneapolis, MN
October 20, 2003

Part III:  Conservation, Jevons’ Paradox and
Alternative Energies



Due to its length, Part III is separated into two sections:

Part III-A:
Conservation
    Consumption
    Efficiency & Productivity
    Conservation and Vehicle Mileage Standards
Alternative Energies
    Net Energy
    Tar Sands
    Hydrogen
    Evaluating Windpower

Part III-B:

Solar & Photovoltaics
Light & Commuter Rail vs. the Bus
Biomass: Agriculture, Ethanol & Biodiesel
Biomass: Energy, Footprint, Land, Food & Lifeboats
Sustainable Farms Transition

 

Part III:  Conservation, Jevons’ Paradox and Alternative Energies

144

 

 

       Conservation & Jevons’ Paradox

144

            Conservation

145

            Consumption

148

            Efficiency & Productivity

150

               Conservation and Vehicle Mileage Standards

151

            Conservation Summary

153

 

 

       Alternative Energies

155

            Net Energy

156

               Table 12: Comparative Net Energies

158

               Implications in Brief

158

       Tar Sands

159

       Hydrogen

161

            Storage & Transport

165

            The Hybrid Car

166

            Cost Comparisons

170

            The Fuel Tank

171

            Hydrogen & the Automobile Industry

172

            Hydrogen – Hybrid Car Summary

174

 

 

       Evaluating Windpower

176

            Overview

176

            Wind Potential

178

            Transmission Costs

180

            The Load Factor, Growing Demand, Capital Investments, & Air Pollution

180

            Greenhouse Emissions

184

            Removal

184

            Access Roads, Crops & Demonstration Projects

185

            Jobs & the Local Economy

186

               Table 13: Direct Employment in Electricity Generation, Various Technologies, United States

187

            Buffalo Ridge – Lake Benton Development

189

            Energy Storage

191

            Birds

194

            Pollution

196

                 Noise Pollution

196

                Visual & Land Pollution

197

                        Figure 22: Windturbine Next to Minnesota Capitol

198

                        Figure 23: Size Comparisons of Windturbines

198

                        Miles of Land & Changing Rural Values

199

                            Table 14:  Land Requirements of Energy Technologies

199

                Windcommerce Photographs

202

                        Figure 24: Access Roads,  Lake Benton, Minnesota

202

                        Figure 25: Roads, Stormlake, Iowa

203

                        Figure 26: Hilltop Roads, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

203

                        Figure 27: Landscape, Koudia, Morocco

204

                        Figure 28: Construction Site, Pennsylvania Windproject

204

                        Figure 29: Windproject Remnants, Altamont, California

205

                        Figure 30: Collapsed Tower, England

205

                        Figure 31: Loss of Turbine Blade, Minnesota

206

            Windcommerce Subsidies

207

                Federal Subsidies

208

                State Subsidies

209

            Summary of Windpower

215

 

 

       Solar & Photovoltaics

217

         Concentrating (mirrors) Solar Power

219

       Light & Commuter Rail vs. the Bus

221

 

 

       Biomass: Agriculture, Ethanol & Biodiesel

223

            Ethanol & Corn

225

            Energy, Ethanol, Efficiency & Costs

226

            Methanol

229

            Biodiesel & Soybeans

230

               Subsidies

230

               It’s Expensive!

232

            Ethanol, Biodiesel & the Economy

233

            Wood

235

            Biomass: Energy, Footprint, Land, Food & Lifeboats

238

                Figure 32:  United States Per Capita Arable Land 1700 – 2100

240

       Sustainable Farms Transition

242

______
Used with permission of Dell Erickson
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