Minnesota's Energy Future?©

Dell Erickson

Minneapolis, MN
October 20, 2003

References
 

Part

MWord.doc Page Number

Overview and Part I 285
References: Part  II 289
References: Part III 302
References: Part IV 312
References: Part  V 314


References: Overview and Part I

1. Hall, Charles A.S., Cleveland, Cutler J., and Kaufmann, Robert. 1992. Oil And Gas Availability: A History of Federal Government Overestimation in Energy And Resource Quality. Colorado University Press.

2. “Elite vs. Public Opinion: An Examination of Divergent Views on Immigration”, Roy Beck and Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies. December 2002. See < http://www.cis.org/articles/2002/back1402.html >.

3. “The Utility Executive’s Field Guide to the Future, Geology, Geo-Politics and Global Warming: Key Issues 2000-2010.” Dwight L. Allen Jr., Arthur A. Grubb, and Rick Faery; Deloitte Research, Deloitte Consulting (Global) LP and Deloitte & Touche. 2001. See at < http://www.ebusinessforum.gr/links/reports/deloitte/drivers/geology.pdf >.

4. “Final Document: Energy flows in Ecology and Economy”, Advances in Energy Studies, International Workshop. Porto Venere, Italy, May 26-30, 1998. See at < http://www.unicamp.br/fea/ortega/curso/final-PV.htm >.

5. 1997. World Book Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc., p253. See also “entropy”.

6. Meadows, Donella H., Meadows, Dennis L., and Randers, Jørgen. 1972. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Universe Books and Potomac Associates, New York. p21.

7. Meadows, 1972, p23.

8. Meadows, 1972, p156.

9. Meadows, 1972, Table 4, p58. See Table 4 at < http://dieoff.com/limitstogrowth.htm >.

10. Meadows, 1972.

11. The Beyond the Limits program uses the “World3” computer model of the book Beyond the Limits. The Earth Systems Project: Making Global Models Accessible. Kenneth L. Simons and Peter J. Poole. Revised May 31, 2001. See < http://www.sun.rhbnc.ac.uk/~uhss021/ESP/EarthSystemsProject.html >.

12. Hardin, Garrett. February 1999. The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia, Oxford University Press.

13. “Population Growth: The Neglected Dimension of America’s Persistent Energy/Environmental Problems”, Leon Kolankiewicz, NumbersUSA Education and Research Foundation, November 2002. See at < http://www.numbersusa.com/about/bk_popgrowth.html > or at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/energy/.htm >.

14. For more further information on the subject of growth rates, see "Exponential Growth and The Rule of 70", at "Ecofuture", < http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/facts/exponential70.html > and “The Pond Lilly Parable”, Dell Erickson. 1999. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/erickson_d_pond_lilly_parable.htm >.

15. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. Population and the American Future, 1972. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office.) See final recommendations at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/rockefeller_1974_recommendations.htm >;
The Rockefeller Commission Report March 27, 1972: Thirty Years Later”, M. Boyd Wilcox, March 5, 2002. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/nopc_thirty_years_later.htm >.

16. Mumford, Stephen D. 1996. The Life and Death of NSSM 200: How the Destruction of Political Will Doomed a U.S. Population Policy, Center for Research on Population and Security, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. See at < http://www.population-security.org/index.html >.

17. “Mexico to Abandon OPEC Deal?” Stratfor.com Global Intelligence Update, Sept. 12, 2000.

18. Stratfor.com Global Intelligence Update, Sept. 12, 2000.

19. “Washington Eyes Bangladesh Gas Reserves”, Stratfor.com Global Intelligence Update, Sept. 14, 2000.

20. Census population projections are at < http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/natsum.html > and at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/population.htm >.

21. “The Demographic Transition Revisited Lessons for Foreign Aid and U.S. Immigration Policy”, Virginia D. Abernethy. Carrying Capacity Network Focus Series. 1994. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/abernathy_v_demographic_transition_revisited.htm  >.
Abernethy, Virginia D. 1993. Population Politics: The Choices That Shape Our Future, Insight Books/Plenum Press, New York.

22. Census Release NP-T1, Jan. 13, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/united_states_population.htm >.

23. “IDS: Why Discriminate Against Jurisdictions?”, M. Boyd Wilcox, August, 2001. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/nopc_jurisdictions_and_sovereignty.htm >;
Population Growth Dilutes Our Nation's Democracy”, M. Boyd Wilcox* March, 1999. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/wilcox_m_boyd_nopc_growth_dilutes_democracy.htm >.

24. “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Garrett Hardin. December 13, 1968. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/hardin_g_tragedy_of_the_commons.htm >.

25. Curtis Aljets, INS Midwest District Director, letter to Senator Rod Grams, April 27, 1999.

26. Good explanation of compounding growth using bacteria is available at Minneapolis based "World Population Balance. See at < http://www.worldpopulationbalance.org/pop/bacteria/index.html >.

27. Center for Immigration Studies, Washington, D.C. See at < www.cis.org >.

28. “Counselor says economy benefits from immigration”, Rob Hotakainen & David Peterson. October 4, 2001. (Minneapolis) Star Tribune. See at < http//www.startribune.com/stories/462/733222.html >.

29. U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1994. Barbara Jordan, Chair. See at < http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/exesum94.html >.
Congressional immigration testimony is available at <  http://www.mnforsustain.org/congressional_testimony.htm >.

30. Bouvier, Leon F and Grant, Lindsey; 1994. How Many Americans. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. Note Chapter 4: Alternative Demographic futures.

31. It should be noted that the University of Minnesota under President Mark Yudof, refused to implement the INS's foreign student tracking program. Moreover, the state of Minnesota although passing the accepting legislation, implemented a sharply scaled-down worker verification program, thus nullifying its potential.

32. “Undocumented Workers Not Needed in Minnesota: A reply to the Humphrey Institute's HACER study promoting illegal immigration in Minnesota, with policy recommendations”; Dell Erickson, November 30, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/erickson_undocumented_workers.htm >.

33. See:1990: < http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us/demography/demog_3a_97.html#90population >;
1999: < http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us/demography/demog_3a_97.html#Population 1999 >;
2000: DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data Geographic Area: Minnesota; < http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&geo_id=04000US27&qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_DP1 >.

34. 1997 Report to Congress, Executive Summary, U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform: 1990 - 1997. See < http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/ > and < http://www.mnforsustain.org/congressional_testimony.htm >.

35. WCCO radio interview, March 22, 2001;
Leprosy on Rise in Us”, Sharon Lerner, New York Times, February 20, 2003;
The Patient Predator: Tuberculosis”, Kevin Patterson, Medical Journal News, March 3, 2003;
Minnesota Sees Increase in Tuberculosis Cases”, Associated Press National News, March 25, 2002. “Minnesota was among 20 states that saw an increase in TB cases last year, a coalition of more than 80 national public health organizations said. In more than 50 percent of the cases nationwide -- and 81 percent in Minnesota -- the infected persons were born outside the United States.” See at < http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/mar25_02/minnesota_tb.html >;
Minnesota TB Statistics – Summary”, Minnesota Department of Health. See at < http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/tb/stats.html >;
Quarterly Surveillance Report”, Minnesota Department of Health, Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program. July - September, 2003. See at < http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/tb/JulySept03report.pdf >;
The Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Foreign-Born Persons in Minnesota, 1998-2002. Minnesota Health Department. See at < http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/tb/foreignborn.pdf >.

36. Kirk, Russell; 1994: America's British Culture, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, U.S.A.

37. Harrison, Lawrence E., 1997. The Pan-American Dream, Basic Books: HarperCollins Publishers.

38. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., 1998. The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society, Rv. Ed. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

39. “Hispanic Immigrants Dig Deep to Send Home Record Sums of Cash”, Sandra Marquez, The Associated Press. January 2, 2003.

40. “Legal Immigration: Setting Priorities”. 1995. See at < www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir >. See the Executive Summary at: < http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/uscir/exesum94.html >);
Importing Poverty: Immigration and the Growth of America's Poor Population” at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/cis_importing_poverty.htm >;
Immigration's Impacts on Minorities”, University of California Davis. See at < http://heather.cs.ucdavis.edu/pub/Immigration/EffOnMinorities/Index.html >.

41. “Immigration from Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States”, Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies. July 12, 2001. See at < http//www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/release.html >;
The Net Costs of Immigration: The Facts, the Trends, and the Critics”, Dr. Donald Huddle, Carrying Capacity Network; with the 1996 and subsequent revisions showing increasing costs;
The New Americans: Economic Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration”, National Academy of Science -RNC, 1997. Note Dr. George Borjas's commentary;
Borjas George J., 1999. Heaven's Door: Immigration policy and the American economy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 08540;
Briggs Jr.; Vernon M., May, 2001. Immigration and American Unionism. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York 14850;
The Minnesotans For Sustainability website has an United States immigration section covering a variety of issues. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/immigration_main_page.htm >.

42. Samuel Gompers, 1924 letter to Congress.

43. “Immigration from Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States”, Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies. July 12, 2001. See at < http//www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/release.html >.

44. “Undocumented Workers Not Needed in Minnesota: A Reply to the Humphrey Institute's HACER Study Promoting Illegal Immigration In Minnesota, With Policy Recommendations”, Dell Erickson
November 30, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/erickson_undocumented_workers.htm >.

45. “H-1b Foreign Workers: Better Controls Needed to Help Employers and Protect Workers”, United States General Accounting Office. GAO/HEHS-00-157. September 2000. United States General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 20548-0001. See complete report at < www.gao.gov/archive/2000/he00157.pdf >.

46. Immigration Benefit Fraud: Focused Approach is Needed to Address Problems”, Report to Congressional Requesters, United States General Accounting Office GAO-02-66. January 2002. p28. See report at < www.gao.gov/new.items/d0266.pdf >;
See more regarding the H-1b program at the “H-1b Hall of Shame” at< http://www.zazona.com/ShameH1B/ > and “Hire American Citizens” at < http://www.hireamericancitizens.org/ >. Note the section on “Arguments”.  It also appears that states may be in a better position to implement the necessary reforms (while saving considerable taxpayer funds in the process).

47. “Social Security: The Ponzi Path To Dystopia”, David Simcox; NPG Forum Series. October 1998. Negative Population Growth. See at < http://www.npg.org/projects/socialsecurity/socialsec_index.htm >;
Social Security: The American Tragedy”, Dell Erickson, January 1995;
Testimony of Dell H. Erickson Before the House Committee on Ways and Means Concerning Proposals Guaranteed to Save Social Security”, delivered at Washington, D.C., June 10, 1999. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/social_security_testimony_erickson_dell_h.htm >.

48. “Issue Brief: The Mexican Matricula Consular Should Not Be Accepted for Official Purposes”, Federation For American Immigration Reform. January 2003. See at < http://www.fairus.org/html/04193072.htm >.

49. Friends of Immigration Law Enforcement. See at < http://fileus.com/index.html >;
For a letter filing a formal complaint against the Matricula Consuls, see < http://www.mnforsustain.org/matricula_card_letter_legal_complaint_cair.htm > and another letter outlining the possible liabilities of local officials and firms who may use it, see < http://www.mnforsustain.org/matricula_card_letter_local_liability_cair.htm >;
Currently, the local Matricula Office is located at: Wisconsin Office Matricula Consul Office, Madison (HC) 141 North Hancock St., 53703. Rudolph Caro Hecht, Honorary. In the summer of 2003, Minneapolis is scheduled to have a Matricula Consul Office.

50. “Visas for Mexican Workers”, New York Times, Editorial. August 22, 2000;
Meeting of Bush and Mexico's Fox promises new era in nation's ties”, Charles Oliver; Investors Business Daily. February 15, 2001;

What Americans Should Know About Immigration and President Fox of Mexico”, Allan E.  Wall, FrontPageMagazine.com. February 12, 2001. See at < http//frontpagemag.com/archives/miscellaneous/wall02-12-01.htm >.

51. “Mexico’s Multiple Messages: Arrogant – And Desperate”, Joe Guzzardi. Joe Guzzardi Archive, Vdare.com, December 20, 2002. See at < http://www.vdare.com/guzzardi/consulate_offices.htm >.

52. “Illegal Mexicans, Consular Offices, Multiplying”, Joe Guzzardi. Vdare.com. August 14, 2002. See < http://www.vdare.com/guzzardi/multiplying.htm >.

53. “GSA bars Mexican ID cards”, Jerry Seper. The Washington Times, January 22, 2003. See at < http://www.washtimes.com/national/20030122-11837572.htm >.

54. See at < http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c108:H.R.502: >.

55. Letter to the author from the Office of Rep. Jim Ramstad, March 14, 2003. U.S. Department of State: < http://contact-us.state.gov/ >. “Your question has been received and has been given the following reference code: [ref#114538].”

56. “Latin American Newsletters”, January 21, 2003. See at < http://www.latinnews.com/latinnewsdaily/singlestory.php3?reference=MX_21JAN_L_0012003&type= >.

57. “Cantarell Oil Field, Mexico”, Offshore Technology: Industry Reports. See at < http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/cantarell/ >.

58. “Latin American Newsletters”, January 21, 2003. See at < http://www.latinnews.com/latinnewsdaily/singlestory.php3?reference=MX_21JAN_L_0012003&type= >.

59. “Mexico's Petroleum Exports: Safe Collateral for a $50 Billion Loan? Richard C. Duncan, 1995. HubbertPeak.com. See <http://www.hubbertpeak.com/duncan/mexoil.htm >.

60. “Mexico's Fiscal Deficit to Torpedo Fox's Financial Plans,” Stratfor.com, March 12, 2001.

61. “Mexican Presidents Touts Open Borders”, Mary Jordan, The Washington Post. August 25, 2000.

62. “The Energy Crisis: Is it real?” National Coal Council Annual Spring Council Meeting, May 3, 2001. Presentation by Matthew R. Simmons. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/ >. Note the chart “NPC Model for Gas-Fired Plants vs. Actual.”

63. “Investing In energy, an exercise not for the faint hearted”, Matthew R. Simmons. Simmons Company International. See at < http//www.simmonscointl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=167 > and < http//www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=2&dc=161 >.

64. “Running in Place: Immigration's impact on U.S. energy usage”, Donald F. Anthrop, September 2002, Federation for American Immigration Reform. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/anthrop_immigration_and_the_energy_crisis_fair.htm >. Copies available at < www.fairus.org/html/publications.html >.

65. “Americans' debt soaring Highlights + 1st quarter 2001”, Chicago Sun Times, June 18, 2001. See at < http//www.suntimes.com/output/news/debt18.html >.
 

References: Part II

1. “Energy crisis threatens a winter of discontent”, Jeremy Cresswel. The Scotsman: Scotland's National Newspaper. November 21, 2000. See at < www.business.scotsman.com/cfm/home/headlines_specific.cfm?headlineid=4901&subset=archive >.

2. The Olduvai Gorge is located in the eastern Serengeti Plains, in Africa’s northern Tanzania. Its name is taken from the Maasai name for a local plant, Oldupai. The area is an approximately 300 foot deep by 30 miles long, steep sided valley (“gorge”) located in the nearly 4,100 mile long African Great Rift Valley beginning at the Dead Sea. Although currently a dry area, at the time the Olduvai Gorge was a verdant valley supporting a large variety of plants and animals. The area is famous for Drs. Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey’s’ 1931 archaeological expedition’s discovery of 3.7 million year old footprints (Australopithecus afarensis) and the 1958 discovery of the first early fossil hominids, 1.75 million year old “Nutcracker Man” (Australopithecus boisei) and “Handy Man” (Homo habilis). These are the earliest findings of humanity and thus the area is called the “Cradle of Mankind”. True Homo sapiens sapiens man appeared much later, approximately 50,000 years ago. Richard Duncan’s “from the cradle to the cradle” “Earth to Earth, ashes to ashes” symbolism is clear. A pessimist might say the title indicates society’s return to a earlier hunter-gather and semi nomadic society. Today, erosion threatens to obliterate the remaining record of hominid prehistory. Rain is now washing fossil history into the river at a rate that archaeologists cannot keep pace. An archaeological rescue trip leaving September 2003 is at < http://www.earthwatch.org/expeditions/masao.html >.

3. “The Peak of World Production and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge”, Richard C. Duncan, Pardee Keynote Symposia, Geological Society of America, Summit 2000, Reno, Nevada. November 13, 2000. See at < http://www.hubbertpeak.com/duncan/olduvai2000.htm >;
– “World Energy Production, Population Growth, and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge”, Richard C. Duncan. Institute on Energy and Man. November 13, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/duncan_r_olduvai_theory.htm >;
– “Olduvai Cliff Revisited: The Olduvai Cliff Event: ca. 2007”, Richard C. Duncan. March 5, 2001. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/duncan_r_olduvai_cliff_revisited.htm >;
– “The Olduvai Theory: Sliding Towards a Post-Industrial Stone Age”, Richard C. Duncan, Ph.D., Institute on Energy and Man, June 27, 1996. See at < http://dieoff.org/page125.htm >.

4. “Renewables in Global Energy Supply: An IEA Fact Sheet”, International Energy Agency, November 2002. See at < www.iea.org/leaflet.pdf >;
– For world electricity generation by nation by source see “World Net Electricity Generation by Type, 2000”, Table 6.3. Department of Energy, See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/table63.html >.

5. Jean Laherrere Email posted to Energy Resources subscriber list March 27, 2001;
– For more by Jean Laherrere see at < http://hubbertpeak.com/laherrere/ >.

6. Deffeyes, Kenneth S., Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage, Princeton University Press. October 1, 2001.

7. “Ghawar Is Dying”, Chip Haynes. August 2001, The New Colonist. See at < http://www.newcolonist.com/ghawar.html >;
– “Goodbye, Miss American Way”, Chip Haynes, March 2002. The New Colonist. See at < http://www.newcolonist.com/oil_gone.html >.

8.Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCIIContent-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit World Oil Forecast #6”, Cóilín J. Campbell;
– “Peak Oil: A Turning for Mankind”, Richard C. Duncan. Hubbert Center Newsletter # 2001/2-1. April 2001. See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/Campbell_01-2.pdf >;
– The “Radio4All Network” has compiled a series on “The End of the Age of Oil”. See, Part 1 –Michael C. Ruppert on 911, Oil and War at < http://www.radio4all.net/proginfo.php?id=5573 >; Part 2 –interview with Dr.  Cóilín J. Campbell about peak production and decline at < http://www.radio4all.net/proginfo.php?id=5620 >; Part 3 Interviews with Jeremy Rifkin and Dale Allen Pfeiffer on alternative energy at < http://www.radio4all.net/proginfo.php?id=5663 >; and Part 4 –interview with Prof. Richard Heinberg on technological & cultural changes to come at < http://www.radio4all.net/proginfo.php?id=6048 >.

9. “The World Petroleum Life-Cycle”. Richard C. Duncan and Walter Youngquist. From a paper presented at the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshop, “OPEC Oil Pricing and Independent Oil Producers”, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. October 22, 1998. See at < http://dieoff.com/page133.htm >.

10. U.S. Geological Survey. See at < http://greatchange.org/moredinoblood.html >.

11. “Awash in Oil: There's plenty of cheap oil, says the U.S. Geological Survey,” Eric Niiler; Scientific American. September, 2000;
– “The End of Cheap Oil”, Cóilín J. Campbell, Scientific American. March, 1998.

12. “The Futurist”, L.F. (Buzz) Ivanhoe. January/February, 1997. See at < http://dieoff.com/page90.htm >.

13. IEA. See at < http://www.iea.org/g8/world/oilsup.htm >. Note Figure #9;
– Also see < http://hubbertpeak.com > and < http://oilcrisis.org >;
– Definitions see “What goes up must come down: when will it peak?”, J. H. Laherrere. Draft of an article for the Oil and Gas Journal. November 1998. See at < http://www.dieoff.org/page177.htm >.

14. “Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion” C.J. Campbell. Revised February 2002. Mbendi.com World: Oil and Gas Industry. See at < http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/oilg/p0070.htm >.

15. See daily production at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/contents.html >;
– Current projections to 2025 are found at “Annual Energy Outlook 2003”. EIA, January 28, 2003. DOE/EIA-0383(2003). See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/plugs/plaeo03.html >.

16. UPI News article, London, Sept. 9, 2000).

17. “Newsletter No 34”, The Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, “ASPO”, October 2003. < http://www.energyshortage.com/news/aspo/Newsletter034.pdf >.

18. “OPEC chief warns of oil production 'crisis”. The National Post (Canada), September 12, 2000.

19. Cóilín Campbell, Jean Laherrere, Brian Fleay, Roger Blanchard, Richard Duncan, Walter Youngquist, and Albert Bartlett. Comparative graphs of oil reserves and production, Hubbert is #1: < http://www.oilcrisis.com/curves.htm >. Note the sharp contrast between government and private forecasts.

20. Gever, J., Kaufman, R., Skole, D., & Vorosmarty, C. 1986. Beyond oil: The threat to food and fuel in the coming decades. University Press of Colorado. p121.

21. See the Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas (ASPO) and other researchers. See at < http://www.peakoil.net/ >.

22. “Middle East Oil Resources: Project Evaluates Region's Ability to Meet Growing World Needs”, The Center for Strategic & International Studies. March 17, 2003. See at < http://www.csis.org/press/pr03_18.htm >.

23. “Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2020”, Dept. of Energy/Energy Information Agency, Study #0383-98. December, 1997. See at < http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/forecasting/038398.pdf >, page 221.

24. Current weekly oil and natural gas production and other related statistical data is available at WTGR Economics: See at < http://www.wtrg.com/ino/ >;
– EIA/DOE links to daily oil production: < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/t11a.txt >, < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/t11c.txt >, < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/t11b.txt >.

25. “Synopsis”, Jay Hanson, Mar, 8, 2001. See < http://dieoff.com/synopsis.htm >.

26. “Giant oil and gas discoveries of the 1990’s: A review”, Henry S. Pettingill. 2000 AAPG Annual Meeting: Marching into Global Markets -- A World of Resources. April 16 - 19, 2000, New Orleans, USA. Technical Program Sessions. See at < http://aapg.confex.com/aapg/no2000/techprogram/paper_2964.htm >;
– “Oil discovery & production plots by country”, ASPO News (The Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas), from 'The Essence of Oil and Gas Depletion' by Cóilín Campbell. See at < http://www.asponews.org/plots.php?plot=Canada >;
Calculations: 365 x 79 mbl/day = 28.8 bbl/yr; 28.8b/26b = 110.9% of one year.

27. Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas, ASPO. See at <http://www.peakoil.net/ >.

28. “The Coming Energy Crisis?, James L. Williams and A.F. Alhajji, Energy and Economics Newsletter. WTRG Economics, Energy Information Administration. Figure 3. See at < http://www.wtrg.com/EnergyCrisis/index.html >.

29. “Short-Term Energy Outlook”, EIA/DOE. May 8, 2003. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html >.

30. Bartlett, Albert, 2000; An Analysis of U.S. and World Oil Production Patterns Using Hubbert-Style Curves. In, “Mathematical Geology”, Vol. 32, Number 1, January 2000. Note Figure #3, U.S., and Figure #5, World;
BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy 2000. See at < http://www.bp.com/worldenergy/primary/index.htm >. Note chart, “Crude oil prices since 1861”.

31. Cleveland, Dr. Cutler J. and Kaufmann, Dr. Robert; Real oil prices and annual rates of oil production in the lower 48 U.S, in “Oil Supply and Oil Politics Déjà Vu All Over Again”, OilAnalytics.org. 2001, See at < http//www.oilanalytics.org/policytop.html >. Note Figure 1.

32. Facing the United States' oil supply problem: Would opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Coastal Plain really make a difference?”, James Mackenzie. World Resources Institute. Feb. 15, 2001. See at < www.wri.org/press/oil_anwr.html >.

33. “Alaska energy”, Energy Information Agency. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/main_ak.html >.

34. “Fall 2002 Revenue Sources Book: Forecast & Historical Data”, Alaska Department of Revenue, Tax Division. November 26, 2002. See at < http://www.tax.state.ak.us/SourcesBook/2002FallSources/f02index.htm >.

35. See at < http://www.revenue.state.ak.us/Tax/_private/SourcesBook/98FallSources/histprod.htm >;
– For current daily Alaskan oil production at < http://www.revenue.state.ak.us/ >.

36. “Data shows steep Prudhoe Bay production decline”, Thomas H. Standing. Oil & Gas Journal, October 2, 2000. See at < http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m3112/40_98/66241327/p1/article.jhtml?term==Prudhoe+Bay%2Bproduction >.

37. “Mexico's Petroleum Exports: Safe Collateral for a $50 Billion Loan?”, Richard C. Duncan, 1995. HubbertPeak.com. See <http://www.hubbertpeak.com/duncan/mexoil.htm >.

38. “Las Mentiras de Pemex (The Lies of Pemex)”, HubbertPeak.com. See at < http://www.hubbertpeak.com/mx/proceso.htm >.

39. “Industry Projects”, Offshore-Technology.Com. See < http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/index.html > for worldwide oil and natural gas projects.

40. “The Coming Oil Crisis: Mexico”, HubbertPeak.com. See at <http://www.hubbertpeak.com/mx/ >;
– HubbertPeak.com < http://www.hubbertpeak.com/duncan/mexoil.htm >.

41. “China'02 Daqing Crude Output Down 3% as Reserves Decrease”. Yahoo!.biz. January 2, 2003. See at < http://sg.biz.yahoo.com/030102/15/365td.html >.

42. “Oil Market Report”, International Energy Agency. November 2001. See at < http://www.iea.org/omrep/index.htm >. See “supply”, 12/11. Note p7.

43. Graph of China’s growing population and GDP, see at < http://www.pnl.gov/china/popgnp.htm >.

44. “China Energy”, Michael J. Economides, January 17, 2003. See at < http://www.energy.uh.edu/documents/behind_the_gas_pump/MichaelEconomides.pdf >.

45. “China's oil demand expected to rise”, Alexander’s Gas & Oil Connection. October 1, 2002. See at < http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/nts24091.htm >;
Asia starts to gasp for energy”, John Berthelsen. Asia Times Online Ltd. August 21, 2003. See at < http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Asian_Economy/EH21Dk01.html >.

46. “China's Jan-July crude imports rise 29.8 pct”, Reuters, August 19, 2003. See at < http://biz.yahoo.com/rf/030819/energy_china_oil_1.html >.

47. “Oil Market Report”, International Energy Agency. November 2001. See at < http://www.iea.org/omrep/index.htm >. See “supply”, 12/11. Note p7.

48. “China'02 Daqing Crude Output Down 3% as Reserves Decrease”. Yahoo!.biz. January 2, 2003. See at < http://sg.biz.yahoo.com/030102/15/365td.html >.

49. “Koizumi Visits Energy-Rich Russian Region, Seeking Oil”; “Japan and China dueling to lock down Siberian oil resources; the great game continues...”. James Brooke, New York Times, January 13, 2003.

50. “UK North Sea oil production is collapsing”, Jeremy Cresswell. Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections, Europe. April 27, 2001. See at < http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/nte12209.htm >;
– The latest estimates by country can be found at < http://dieoff.com/campbell.htm >.

51. “Sea change for Scots oil industry”, Andrew Murray-Watson. Scotsman.com, Scotland on Sunday –Business, February 9, 2003. See at < http://www.scotlandonsunday.com/business.cfm?id=159292003 >.

52. Dow Jones Newswires. January 10, 2003.

53. “Sea change for Scots oil industry”, Andrew Murray-Watson. Scotsman.com, Scotland on Sunday –Business, February 9, 2003. See at < http://www.scotlandonsunday.com/business.cfm?id=159292003 >.

54. “Heuristic Oil Forecasting Method, Forecast #4 World Oil Forecasting Program”, Richard C. Duncan. Institute on Energy and Man, Seattle, WA. See at < http://www.halcyon.com/duncanrc/index.html >.

55. “Saudi woos foreign energy firms”, BBC News, July 23, 2003. See at < http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/business/3087783.stm >.

56. “Middle East Oil Resources: Project Evaluates Region's Ability to Meet Growing World Needs”, The Center for Strategic & International Studies. March 17, 2003. See at < http://www.csis.org/press/pr03_18.htm >.

57. “Energy Jitters .... Again”; Greater Houston Partnership Board Meeting, March 5, 2003. Houston, Texas. Matthew R. Simmons, President, Simmons and Company International. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/domino/html/research.nsf/0/C3B80200D2446FB186256CE2006E24EC/$File/GHP.pdf >.

58. Dow Jones Newswires, David Bird. March 5, 2003.

59. “Chavez Frias says OPEC considering €uro 2.56-3.41 raise in price band to €21.32-27.29”, David Coleman. VHeadline.com. October 01, 2003. See at < http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp?id=11253 >.

60. “Oil: the last 100 years, the next 100 years”, Mark Meyer; Simmons & Co. September 17, 2001. See at < www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=190 >. Note slides 19 and 20.

61. Karl Davies, Davies & Company, Northampton, MA. Chart data from EIA, 2000;
– Also see oil_reserves_by_sources_bp_2002.gif, British Petroleum, 2002. Original at < http://www.bp.com/centres/energy2002/oil/reserves.asp# >.

62. “Heuristic Oil Forecasting Method, Forecast #4 World Oil Forecasting Program”, Richard C. Duncan. Institute on Energy and Man, Seattle, WA. See at < http://www.halcyon.com/duncanrc/index.html >.)

63. “The Saudi Contradiction”, Review & Outlook, The Wall Street Journal. October 30, 2001. See at < http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=95001394 >.

64. “Conflict centered in world's oil patch”, Frank Viviano. San Francisco Chronicle, September 26, 2001. pA8. See at < www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/09/26/MN70983.DTL&type=printable >.

65. “OPEC Price War Won't Sink Russia, Strategic Forecasting, November 11, 2001. See at < http://www.stratfor.com/CIS/commentary/0111152330.htm >.

66. “Russia: When a Cut Is Not a Cut”, Stratfor.com. Strategic Forecasting LLC. December 1, 2001. See at < http://www.stratfor.com/CIS/commentary/0112052330.htm >.

67. “And when cheap oil runs out…: Enter the age of conservation”, San Francisco Chronicle, Jan Lundberg. May 6, 2001. Page D - 7. See at < www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/05/06/ED155380.DTL >;
– “Oil Money Leaves North America”, Neftegaz, September 2, 2003. See at < http://www.neftegaz.ru/english/lenta/index.php?npg=a9mnhh >.

68. Ron Patterson. January 4, 2003. Email post to Energy Resources subscriber list.

69. Deffeyes, Kenneth S., 2001; Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage, Princeton University Press, October 1, 2001;
Facing the United States' oil supply problem: Would opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Coastal Plain really make a difference?”, James Mackenzie, World Resources Institute. Feb. 15, 2001. See at < www.wri.org/press/oil_anwr.html >.

70. “Three Peak Oil Forecasts”, Richard C. Duncan, Institute on Energy and Man, Oil and Gas Journal, May 26, 2003, pps 18-26.

71. “World Energy Production, Population Growth, and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge”, Richard C. Duncan. Institute on Energy and Man. May 2001. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/duncan_r_olduvai_theory.htm > and “Olduvai Cliff Revisited: The Olduvai Cliff Event: ca. 2007”, Richard C. Duncan. March 5, 2002. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/duncan_r_olduvai_cliff_revisited.htm >.

72. “And when cheap oil runs out…: Enter the age of conservation”, San Francisco Chronicle, Jan Lundberg. May 6, 2001. Page D - 7. See at < www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/05/06/ED155380.DTL >.

73. “America for sale: an update of foreign holdings of U.S. assets”, Daniel Bernstein. Bridgewater Associates, August 15, 2000. See at < www.bridgewaterassociates.com/pdf/bwam081500web.pdf >, note the financial charts.

74. “Weaker Dollar Could Shake Up U.S. Bond Markets”, Jennifer Ablan, Current Yield, “Barron's”, August 27, 2001.

75. “Deflation in Japan, Disinflation Around the World”, Kojima Akira, Japan Echo, 2002, Vol. 29 No. 6. See at < http://www.japanecho.co.jp/sum/2002/290606.html >.pMW11.

76. Kojima Akira, 2002.

77. “Bush's Deep Reasons for War on Iraq: Oil, Petrodollars, and the OPEC Euro Question”, Peter Dale Scott. February 15, 2003. See at < http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~pdscott/iraq.html >;
– “Followup: Deep Reasons and Other Reasons for Bush's War on Iraq”, Peter Dale Scott. February 26, 2003. See at < http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~pdscott/iraq2.html >.

78. “Kuwaitis withdraw capital from US”, Jack Fairweather, The Telegraph (London). January 1, 2003. See at < http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/01/01/wirq301.xml/ >.

79. “Iraq: Baghdad Moves To Euro”, Charles Recknagel. Radio Free Europe. November 1, 2000. See at <http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2000/11/01112000160846.asp >.

80. “Islamic Gold Dinar Will Minimize Dependency on U.S. Dollar,” IslamOnline.Net. January 8, 2003. See at < http://www.islamonline.net/completesearch/english/mDetails.asp?hMagazineID=45756&hTitle=Gold >.

81. “Oil, Currency and the War on Iraq”, Cóilín Nunan, Feasta. March 6, 2003. See at < http://www.feasta.org/documents/papers/oil1.htm >.

82. “Iraq: Baghdad Moves To Euro”, Charles Recknagel. Radio Free Europe. November 1, 2000. See at <http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2000/11/01112000160846.asp >.

83. “White House sells plan for locals to govern”, David Sanger, The New York Times. March 17 2003. See at < http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/03/16/1047749669039.html >.

84. “Oil Fields as Military Objectives: A Feasibility Study”, U.S., Congress, Committee on International Relations, prepared for the Special Subcommittee on Investigations, House International Relations Committee (August 21, 1975), p. 76. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, 94th Cong., 1st sess., August 21, 1975. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1975, Parts I and II, pp. 1-39. See at < http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/fields.htm >;
– “The Rapid Deployment Force: The Few, the Futile, the Expendable”, David Isenberg Cato Policy Analysis No. 44. November 8, 1984. See at < http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa044.html >. See cite #10;
– “Operation Oily Immunity”, Steve Kretzmann and Jim Valette. AlterNet, July 24, 2003. See at < http://www.alternet.org >.

85. “It's about oil, and profits for US companies”, Kenneth Davidson. Opinion, The new Age.com. February 6, 2003. See at: < http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/02/05/1044318666539.html >.

86. “China readies for future U.S. fight”, Willy Wo-Lap Lam, CNN, March 25, 2003. See at < http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/east/03/24/willy.column/index.html >.

87. “National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group”, Summary of Recommendations. May 2001. See at < http://www.wtrg.com/energyreport/national-energy-policy.pdf >. p163.

88. “Trans-Balkan Pipeline Construction Starts One Year After NATO Bombing Ended, The Reagan Information Exchange. May 30, 2000. See at < http://www.reagan.com/HotTopics.main/HotMike/document-6.8.2000.0.html >;
The Trans Balkan AMBO Pipeline, the President of Albania, and Kosovo”, FreeRepublic.com, 1996. See at < www.freerepublic.com/forum/a3793a582649e.htm >;
The Role of Caspian Sea Oil in the Balkan Conflict, Diana Johnstone. FreeRepublic.com, Spring 1999. See at < www.freerepublic.com/forum/a38f00aea2738.htm >;
The World Dominance Game - Eurasia -Turkmenistan - Afghanistan - Pakistan Pipeline”, Ringnebula.com. See at < http://www.ringnebula.com/Oil/Pipeline.htm >.

89. “Russia Chooses a Compromise Oil Pipeline”, AP, New York Times, 14 March 14, 2003.

90. “America at War in Macedonia”, Michel Chossudovsky. Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa. June 14, 2001. See at < http://emperors-clothes.com/articles/choss/pipe.htm >;
– Map at < http://www.bsrec.bg/taskforce/SYNERGY/oilprojects2.html >.

91. “Reconstructing Afghanistan - on oil and gas”, Uwe Parpart. Asia Times Online. Ltd. November 24, 2001. See at < http://atimes.com/c-asia/CK24Ag01.html >.

92. “Bush's Faustian Deal With the Taliban”, Robert Scheer. Los Angeles Times, May 22, 2001. See at < http://www.robertscheer.com/1_natcolumn/01_columns/052201.htm >.

93. “How Afghanistan Went Unlisted as Terrorist Sponsor”, Mary Pat Flaherty, David B. Ottaway, and James V. Grimaldi. Washington Post, November 5, 2001. See at < http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39681-2001Nov4.html >.

94. “Connecting the Energy Dots to Afghanistan”, Sean Gonsalves. AlterNet.org. September 5, 2002. See at < http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=14047 >.

95. “U.S. Policy Towards Taliban Influenced by Oil - Say Authors”, Julio Godoy. Inter Press Service. November 15, 2001. See at < http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/pol/wtc/uspolicytalibanoil111501.html >.

96. Julio Godoy, November 15, 2001.

97. “Running on Empty: When Will the Joyride End?”, Randy Udall, and Steve Andrews. Home Power Magazine, Issue #81, February/March 2001. See at < www.homepower.com/bonus.htm >.

98. Klare, Michael T., 2001; Resource Wars - The New Landscape of Global Conflict, Metropolitan Books; 1st Edition (May 2001) ISBN: 0805055754. See at < http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0805055754/antarktos-20 >.

99. “Oil price puts skid under growth”, Andrew Oswald. The Sunday Times (London) September 2, 2001. Professor Oswald list 6 commonly heard myths about the economy and oil alternatives. Transcribed on September 3, 2001 by PHiLMS International.

100. Dr. Cóilín Campbell’s speech is at < http://www.rz.tu-clausthal.de/realvideo/event/peak-oil.ram >.

101. “Cure For The Summertime Blues: Natural Gas Supply Overwhelms Demand - But Not For Long”, Barry Borak, August 03, 2001. David L. Babson & Company Inc. See at < http://www.dlbabson.com/dlbindex/0,5624,8-23-59-217,00.html >.

102. “Industry worried by low US gas supplies”, Kevin Morrison and Carola Hoyos, March 20, 2003. Yahoo.news. See at < http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=1106&u=/ft/20030320/bs_ft/1045511902418&printer=1 >.

103. “Nation's Supply of Natural Gas Drying up Fast: Power plants like those in upstate (South Carolina) will burn increasingly scarce fuel”. Brad Foss. Greenville (South Carolina) News, Aug. 12, 2001.

104. Department of Energy data at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/tables/enduse_consump.html >.

105. For an excellent chart of U.S. energy flows in 1998 see, “U.S. Energy Flow – 1998 Net Primary Resource Consumption, Preliminary”, H. Miller. May 1999. See at < http://en-env.llnl.gov/flow/pdf/usenflow-97quads.pdf >;
Imports and Exports Figures”, #6, Natural Gas Annual, 2000; Energy Information Agency. See at < www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_annual/nga.html >;
– For Minnesota, see “Historical Natural Gas Annual - 1930 Through 1999”, “State Summaries Tables”, #65. Table 3. Energy Information Agency. See at < www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/historical_natural_gas_annual/hnga.html >.

106. “Residential Energy Consumption Surveys: 1997 Consumption and Expenditures Tables”, “Table CE1-10c: Total Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Midwest Region, 1997 –Physical Units”. EIA/DOE, June 2000. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/tables/enduse_consump.html >. Note: 24.1 ÷ 101.5 = 23.7%; 2,141 ÷ 5,143 = 41.6%.

107. Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States 2000”, Summary. EIA, March 2002. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/ipp/ipp_sum.html >;
– For total U.S. 2000 to 2005 see “Table 1. Existing Capacity and Planned Capacity Additions at U.S. Electric Utilities by Energy Source, 2000” at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/ipp/html1/t1p01.html >;
“Analyst says power plant demand will overwhelm gas industry”, Oil and Gas Journal, June 29, 2001. See at < http://ogj.pennnet.com/articles/web_article_display.cfm?ARTICLE_CATEGORY=TOPST&ARTICLE_ID=105950 >.

108. “Power Plant Gas Needs Just Beginning To Grow”, Matthew R. Simmons, Simmons and Company International. PDF slide show: at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=206 >. Slide 27.

109. See < http://pe.pennwellnet.com/Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Section=Articles&SubSection=Display&ARTICLE_ID=104633&VERSION_NUM=1 >;
– Also see < http://www.nef1.org/ea/eastats.html >.

110. “The History and Sources of Propane”, Illinois Propane Gas Association. See < http://www.ilpga.org/cons_where.asp >.

111.  “Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply”. #1. Summary. June 12, 2001. EIA/DOE. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/california/june01article/casummary.html >.

112. “The Coming Natural Gas Crisis and How It Will Transform the Energy Industry”, Energy Business Watch. New York. Seminar announcement: February 6-7, 2003.

113.  U.S. Department of Energy. See < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/usa.html >.

114. “The Domestic Natural Gas Status”, Joseph P. Riva, Jr. CRS Reports to Congress, United States Library of Congress. CRS Report #95-739 SPR, June, 1995. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/riva_j_us_domestic_natural_gas_status.htm >;
– See also < http://www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/energy/eng-1.cfm >.

115. “U.S. Conventional Wisdom and Natural Gas”, Joseph P. Riva, Hubbert Center Newsletter #97/3, July 1997. See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/v97n3/mkh-new4.html >.

116. Cóilín Campbell. Email posted to the Energy Resources list, August 29, 2001.

117. “Will the Natural Gas Supply Meet the Demand in North America?”, Jean Laherrere. November 2001. Note Fig 13: Gas production from oil wells and petroleum production. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/energy_us_ng_supply_v_demand_laherrere_2001_part1.htm >.

118. Personal Email to the author from Jean Laherrere, September 21, 2001.

119. “Accelerated Depletion: Assessing its impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas prices and production”, U.S. Department of Energy, September 2000. See at < http://www.fe.doe.gov/oil_gas/reports/accel_dep/ >.

120. “High Costs And Falling Gas Prices – Implications For E&P Economics”, Mark W. Meyer, David A Pursell, and Ryan E. Zorn, Simmons and Company International, Energy Industry Research. August 8, 2001. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=182 >.

121. Simmons, Matthew R., 2001. US Domestic Natural Gas Supply & Demand: The Contribution of Public Lands & the OCS. Congressional Testimony of Matthew Simmons before the Subcommittee on Energy & Mineral Resources of the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, at Washington, D.C., March 15, 2001. See at < http//www.simmonscointl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=138 >.

122. “Depletion: No Longer The Forgotten Factor!”, David A. Pursell, Simmons & Company, August 23, 1999. See at < http://www.simmonsco­intl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=8 >.

123. See at < http://www.ipaa.org/departments/information_services/spe.htm >.

124. “Energy Jitters .... Again”; Greater Houston Partnership Board Meeting, March 5, 2003. Houston, Texas. Matthew R. Simmons, President, Simmons and Company International. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/domino/html/research.nsf/0/C3B80200D2446FB186256CE2006E24EC/$File/GHP.pdf >.

125. Matthew R. Simmons, March 5, 2003.

126. “Fourth Quarter Production Survey Shows 6th Consecutive Decline in U.S. Gas Production: New Projects and Higher Activity Levels Cannot Save Us Now”. Raymond James Energy "Stat of the Week" January 21, 2003. < http://170.12.99.3/researchpdf/iEne012103b_0738.pdf >.

127. “Natural gas shortage to clip fertiliser industry”, Mahua Venkatesh. Business Standard.com (New Delhi). January 7, 2003. See at < http://www.business-standard.com/today/story.asp?Menu=2&story=5405 >.

128. “Natural gas shortage to clip fertiliser industry”, Mahua Venkatesh. Business Standard.com (New Delhi). January 7, 2003. See at < http://www.business-standard.com/today/story.asp?Menu=2&story=5405 >.

129. “Outlook For Natural Gas: Does Violent Volatility Risk Its Future?”, Matthew R Simmons, November 12, 2001. Southern Gas Association Executive Conference, West Palm Beach, Florida.

130. “Effects of Natural-Gas Shortage Rip Through U.S. Economy”, Russell Gold, Rebecca Smith, Robert Guy Matthews and Jon Kamp. Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones Newswires. February 28, 2003. See at < http://news.morningstar.com/news/DJ/M02/D28/1046409061712.html >.

131. “Saudi Arabia: High on gas”, June 16, 2001. See at < http://www.eiu.com/latest/565056.asp >;
– “Saudis to convert to gas”, New York Times, May 19, 2001.

132. “The Distribution of the World's Natural Gas Reserves and Resources”, Joseph P. Riva, Jr. Congressional Research Service, National Council for Science and the Environment. December 14, 1995. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/riiva_j_natural_gas_distribution_of_the_world.htm >.

133. “The Domestic Natural Gas Status”, Joseph P. Riva, Jr. CRS Reports to Congress, United States Library of Congress. CRS Report #95-739 SPR, June, 1995. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/riva_j_us_domestic_natural_gas_status.htm >;
– See also < http://www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/energy/eng-1.cfm >.

134. “Premium Placed on Natural Gas Storage Assets”, Ken Silverstein. Energy Industry Analysis. UtiliPoint International. March 11, 2003. See at <www.utilipoint.com  >.

135. “Analyst sees sharply higher natural gas prices this winter”, OGJ Online Staff, Oil & Gas Journal Online. December 6, 2002. See at < http://ogj.pennnet.com/home.cfm >.

136. Simmons & Company International Energy Industry Research. See < http//www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=134 >.

137. “Deepwater Production Summary by Year”, U.S. Department of the Interior. December 2, 2001. See at < http://www.gomr.mms.gov/homepg/offshore/deepwtr.html >.

138. Simmons & Company International, Stories. See at < http://www.nationalpost.com/home/story.html?f=/stories/20010623/599296.html >;
See also < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=166 >.

139. “Nation's Supply of Natural Gas Drying up Fast: Power plants like those in upstate (South Carolina) will burn increasingly scarce fuel”, Brad Foss. Greenville (South Carolina) News, Sunday, Aug. 12, 2001.

140. “Texas Production data show rapid gas depletion”, Gary S. Swindell. Gary S. Swindell & Associates, Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX. Originally published in the Oil & Gas Journal, June 21, 1999, page 61. See also at < http://oil.server4.com/tx-depl.htm >. Data updated in personal Email from the author December 4, 2001. Revisions seen in “Changes in the Performance of Texas Gas Wells”, Society of Petroleum Engineers #SPE 70018, May 2001;
– Texas Railroad commission statistics are at: < http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/divisions/og/information-data/stats/ogismcon.html >.

141. “Cure For The Summertime Blues: Natural Gas Supply Overwhelms Demand - But Not For Long”, Barry Borak, David L. Babson & Company Inc. August 03, 2001. See at < http://www.dlbabson.com/dlbindex/0,5624,8-23-59-217,00.html >.

142. “The Coming Natural Gas Crisis and How It Will Transform the Energy Industry”, Energy Business Watch. New York. Seminar announcement: February 6-7, 2003.

143. “The U.S. Energy Crisis, an Urgent Request for Action”, Paul Cicio. Industrial Energy Consumers of America. January 21, 2003. See original at < http://hoovnews.hoovers.com/fp.asp?layout=printnews&doc_id=nr200301211680.2_e6300027e55c8094 >.

144. “Minnesota Energy Planning Report” Draft, Minnesota Department of Commerce, October 2001. p46. See at < www.me3.org >.

145. “Texas Production data show rapid gas depletion”, Gary S. Swindell. Gary S. Swindell & Associates, Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX. Originally published in the Oil & Gas Journal, June 21, 1999, page 61. See also at < http://oil.server4.com/tx-depl.htm >. Data updated in personal Email from the author December 4, 2001. Revisions seen in “Changes in the Performance of Texas Gas Wells”, Society of Petroleum Engineers #SPE 70018, May 2001.

146. “Production Growth…What Production Growth?”, 4th Quarter 2001Reported Oil And Natural Gas Production Trends, Simmons & Company International Energy Industry Research, March 5, 2001. See at < www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=134 >.

147. See natural gas and oil rig count weekly at < http://www.wtrg.com/rotaryrigs.html >;
– Baker Hughes rig counts at < http://www.bakerhughes.com/investor/rig/ >.

148. “Cure For The Summertime Blues: Natural Gas Supply Overwhelms Demand - But Not For Long”, Barry Borak, David L. Babson & Company Inc. August 03, 2001. See at < http://www.dlbabson.com/dlbindex/0,5624,8-23-59-217,00.html >.

149. Oil Giants Struggle to Spend Profits Amid Shortage of Exploration Sites”, Christopher Cooper and Thaddeus Herrick; The Wall Street Journal online. July 30, 2001. See at < http://public.wsj.com/home.html >.

150. Christopher Cooper and Thaddeus Herrick. July 30, 2001.

151. Simmons & Company International, News. See at < http//www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/default.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&doc=134 >. Also see < http://www.ngsa.org/press/press_2001/04_25_01PR.htm >.

152. “Behind the Blackout”, Interview of Matthew Simmons by Michael C. Ruppert. From The Wilderness Publications, August 21, 2003. See at < www.fromthewilderness.com >;
– Hearing Before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality October 10, 2001. Prepared Testimony of David N. Cook, General Counsel, North American Electric Reliability Council See at < ftp://www.nerc.com/pub/sys/all_updl/docs/testimony/House-Energy-and-Air-Quality-NERC-testimony-101001.pdf >;
– “Deregulated energy not a bright idea”, Don Godard and Steve Loveland. Guest Columnists, Seattle Post-Intelligencer. September 16, 2003. See at < http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/139712_electric16.html >.

153. “Premium Placed on Natural Gas Storage Assets”, Ken Silverstein. “Energy Industry Analysis”. UtiliPoint International. March 11, 2003. See at < www.utilipoint.com >.

154. “Disastrous fuel shortages forecast”, Heather Draper, Rocky Mountain News. June 6, 2003. See at < http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drmn/business/article/0,1299,DRMN_4_2015637,00.html >.

155. “Oil and the human factor”, Andrew Main. Australian Financial Review. September 8, 2003. See at < http://afr.com/ >. Page 25;
– “Energy Jitters .... Again”; Greater Houston Partnership Board Meeting, March 5, 2003. Matthew R. Simmons, President, Simmons and Company International. Houston, Texas. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/domino/html/research.nsf/0/C3B80200D2446FB186256CE2006E24EC/$File/GHP.pdf >.

156. “Enerdata Gas Storage Survey - Feb 21, 2003”, Fee only: < http://www.enerdata.com/ >.

157. “Duke: Storage Constrictions On Texas Eastern Gas Pipeline”, Dow Jones Business News. February 27, 2003.

158. “Energy Jitters .... Again”; Greater Houston Partnership Board Meeting, March 5, 2003. Houston, Texas. Matthew R. Simmons, President, Simmons and Company International. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/domino/html/research.nsf/0/C3B80200D2446FB186256CE2006E24EC/$File/GHP.pdf >.

159. “Fertilizer plant closes, high gas prices blamed”, Richard Thompson. GoMemphis.com, June 7, 2003. See at < http://www.gomemphis.com/mca/business/article/0,1426,MCA_440_2017989,00.html >.

160. “Balancing Natural Gas Policy – Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy: Volume I, Summary of Findings and Recommendations”, A Report of the National Petroleum Council. September 25, 2003. See at < http://www.npc.org/ >. Figure 18: Industrial And Power Generation Natural Gas Flexibility, July 2003;
Balancing Natural Gas Policy: Fueling the Demands of a Growing Economy”, Committee on Natural Gas Presentation to the National Petroleum Council. September 25, 2003. See at < http://www.npc.org/ >.

161. “Effects of Natural-Gas Shortage Rip Through U.S. Economy”, Russell Gold, Rebecca Smith, Robert Guy Matthews and Jon Kamp. Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones Newswires. February 28, 2003. See at < http://news.morningstar.com/news/DJ/M02/D28/1046409061712.html >.

162. ”Industry worried by low US gas supplies”, Kevin Morrison and Carola Hoyos, March 20, 2003. Yahoo.news. See at < http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=1106&u=/ft/20030320/bs_ft/1045511902418&printer=1 >.

163. “Short-Term Energy Outlook”, EIA/DOE. May 8, 2003. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html >.

164. “Oil and Gas Inventories”, The Dismal Scientist. Updated weekly. See at < http://www.dismal.com/economy/releases/release_2k.asp?r=usa_eia >;
– Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections at < http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/welcome.html >. Click on “News and threads”, then region of interest.

165. “Industry worried by low US gas supplies”, Kevin Morrison and Carola Hoyos, March 20, 2003. Yahoo.news. See at < http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=1106&u=/ft/20030320/bs_ft/1045511902418&printer=1 >.

166. “High Costs And Falling Gas Prices – Implications For E&P Economics”, Mark W. Meyer, David A Pursell, and Ryan E. Zorn, Simmons and Company International, Energy Industry Research. August 8, 2001. See at < http://www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=182 >.

167. For further information on the Crazy Horse field, see the offshore oil Website < http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/crazy_horse/ >.

168. “Booming U.S. exports likely over: report”, Chris Varcoe. Calgary Herald, April 02, 2003. See at < http://www.canada.com/calgary/ >.

169. “Oil & Gas Advisory”, Associate Editor: Robin Beckwith. RigZone.com. February 28, 2003. See at < http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=5774 >.

170. “This is a new world for natural gas”, Claudia Cattaneo, Financial Post (Canada), June 19, 2001. See at < http://www.nationalpost.com/financialpost/cadbusiness/story.html?f=/stories/20010619/thisisa.html >. Note Figure 8.

171. “Oil & Gas Advisory”, Associate Editor: Robin Beckwith. RigZone.com. February 28, 2003. See at < http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=5774 >.

172. “Forecasting future production from past discovery”, John J. Laherrere. Conference proceedings of, OPEC and the global energy balance: towards a sustainable energy balance. September 28-29, 2001. Vienna. See at < http://oilcrisis.com/laherrere/opec2001.pdf >. Note Figure 16.

173. "Gas exports to U.S. under fire: Pressure builds in Canada to avoid price run-ups; Vollman warns of backlash", Gary Park, Petroleum News, Week of May 11, 2003, Vol. 8, No. 19. See at < http://www.petroleumnews.com/pnarch/030511-04.html >.

174. See more on the Sable Project at < www.soep.com/ > and < www.soep.com/exhibits/gas-frame1.html >.

175. “Booming U.S. exports likely over: report”, Chris Varcoe. Calgary Herald , April 02, 2003. See at < http://www.canada.com/calgary/ >.
– See < http//www.geo.ucalgary.ca/NatGasCan/ceripaper.pdf >. Note Figure 5.

176. “Gas exports to U.S. under fire: Pressure builds in Canada to avoid price run-ups; Vollman warns of backlash”, Gary Park, Petroleum News, Week of May 11, 2003, Vol. 8, No. 19. See at < http://www.petroleumnews.com/pnarch/030511-04.html >.

177. “The big shrug: U.S. giants took over $35-billion worth of Canadian energy firms in 2001. So who cares?” Brian Bergman. Maclean's Magazine (Canada), December 24, 2001.

178. “Energy plan threatens Canada's sovereignty, group says”, Xinhua News Agency ( Canada ). January 10, 2003. See at <http://hsweb01.screamingmedia.com/PMA/pma_newsarticle1_national.htm?SMDOCID=comtex_2003_01_10_xh_0000-3297-canada-energy-sovereignt&SMContentSet=0  >.

179. For more on the SAGD process see the industry's spokesman, “Nickle's Daily Oil Bulletin”, Nickle's Energy Group. See at < http://www.dailyoilbulletin.com/sample/ODKEY.asp >.

180. Youngquist, Walter; 1997. GeoDestinies: The inevitable control of Earth resources over nations and individuals. National Book Company, Portland, Oregon. pps 219–223;
– “Shale Oil--The Elusive Energy”, Walter Youngquist. In, Hubbert Center Newsletter # 98/4. See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/v98n4/Youngquist.html >.

181. Youngquist, 1997. p282.

182. “Annual Reviews: Energy and the Environment”, January 16, 2003. Environmental Protection Agency. See at < http://www.oilandgasinternational.com/departments/world_industry_news/jan03_anwr.html >.

183. “Alaska Natural Gas: How real an alternative is it?”, Joseph Mathew, President, Hybrid Energy Advisors, Inc. EnergyPulse.net. January 7. 2003. See at < http://www.energypulse.net/centers/article/article_print.cfm?a_id=144 >.

184. “Natural gas pipeline offers few benefits for Alaska, study finds”, Mike Chambers; Associated Press. February 3, 2002. See at < http://www.nando.net/business/story/237905p-2271656c.html >.

185. Duke Energy News Release. November 15, 2001 Duke Energy Gas Transmission Co. See at < http://www.duke-energy.com/decorp/content/newscenter/newsreleases/2001/nov/200111152002.html >.

186. “Design of natural gas pipeline questioned”, Environmental News. October 1, 2001, Volume 35, Issue 19. p394A–395A. See at < http://www.freezingground.org/Gsl/ESTarticle.htm >.

187. Calculations.
The ratio for the 32” –3 Bcf/day pipeline is used to determine delivery rates for the 5’ and 10’ pipelines. Flow = r2 x Velocity x Time. The ratio implies the same pipeline pressure is used in the 5’ and 10’ pipelines ―another generous assumption. The r2 is the reason the volumes are not linear. Since a ratio is calculated, the use of ½ r2 is not necessary.
# 32” pipeline at 3 Bcf; 2 2/3’; 365 x 3 Bcf = 1.1 Tcf; ÷ 23 Tcf = 4.8% of annual consumption.
35 ÷ 1.1 = 32 years to exhaustion.
# 5’ pipeline: 2’ 2/3’^2 ÷ 5’^2  = 3 Bcf ÷ x;
x = (7.11 ÷ 25) = (3 ÷ x); x = 0.2844 = 3/x; x = 0.2844x = 3; x = 10.547 Bcf
365 x 10.547 = 3.849 Tcf/year; 3.849 Tcf ÷ 23 Tcf = 16.7% of annual consumption.
23 Tcf ÷ 3.5 Tcf = 5.98 years to exhaustion.
# 10’ pipeline: 2’ 2/3’^2 ÷ 10’^2  = 3 Bcf ÷ x;
x = (7.11 ÷ 100) = (3 ÷ x); x = 0.0711x = 3; x = 42.19 Bcf; 365 x 42.19 = 15.4 Tcf/year.
15.4 Tcf ÷ 23 Tcf = 67% of annual consumption. 35 total Tcf ÷ 15.4 Tcf = 2.3 years to exhaustion.

188. Natural Gas Annual 2000”, Energy Information Agency, State Overview Table 2. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_annual/historical/2000/nga_2000.html >.

189. “Phillips seeks help from Congress on gas project”, Yereth Rosen; Reuters Ltd., Yahoo! Finance. January 25, 2001. See at < http://biz.yahoo.com/rf/020125/n25199473_1.html >.

190. Calculations:
32″, 2 Bcf/day
x 365 = 730 Bcf/yr
730,000,000 Mcf
$1.25 x 730 = $912,500,000/year revenue
HP–12c: 1.31b annual payment
1.08b st yr int.

191. “Natural gas pipeline offers few benefits for Alaska, study finds”, Mike Chambers; Associated Press. February 3, 2002. See at < http://www.nando.net/business/story/237905p-2271656c.html >.

192. “Gov. Knowles says Alaska gas line is uneconomic, urges federal push”, Oil & Gas Journal Online.  August 31, 2001. See at < http://ogj.pennnet.com/articles/web_article_display.cfm?ARTICLE_CATEGORY=TOPST&ARTICLE_ID=114566 >.

193. See legislation at < http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c107:23:./temp/~c107sFxMit:: >.

194. Senate Draft bill (no bill #). SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the “Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Act of 2001.”. See at < www.arcticgaspipeline.com/Reference/Documents&Presentations/ ProducerInformation/Federal%20Legislation%20(Draft).DOC >.

195. “Survey - Qatar: Wonder of gas lets you be in control”, David Buchan; Financial Times (London), Nov 7, 2001. See at < www.globalarchive.ft.com/globalarchive/article.html?id=011107008416 >.

196. “Gas-to-liquids: much smoke, little fire”, A.M. Samsam Bakhtiari, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran. Hydrocarbon Processing. February 28, 2001. See at < http://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/ >. Email at: < am_samsam@yahoo.com >.

197. “US seen turning to LNG to close natgas supply gap”, Joseph Silha. Reuters : World Environment News, January 4, 2003. See at < http://www.planetark.org/index.cfm >.

198. Simmons & Company International, Research. See at < http//www.simmonsco-intl.com/research/docview.asp?viewnews=true&newstype=1&viewdoc=true&dv=true&doc=161 >.

199. For a government report see < http://www.fe.doe.gov/oil_gas/im_ex/analyses/focus/4th00foc.pdf >.–The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Website contains a lengthy safety analysis, “Qualitative Risk Assessment for LNG Fuel”, see at < http://www.inel.gov/energy/fossil/lng/fuel-risk-assess.shtml >.

200. Chevron 2000 Annual Report. See at < www.chevron.com >. Table III: Results of operations for oil and gas producing activities (p61); Table IV: Reserve quantity information (p62); and Eleven-Year operating summary: Worldwide (p66-67).

201. “Future world oil supply”, Werner Zittel and Jörg Schindler, L-B-Systemtechnik GmbH. International Summer School on the Politics and Economics of Renewable Energy. University of Salzburg. July 15, 2002. See at < http://www.energiekrise.de/news/forum/International-Summer-School_Salzburg_2002.pdf >. p27

202. Gever, John; Kaufmann, Robert; Skole, David; and Vorosmarty, Charles, Eds.; Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades, 3rd edition, University Press of Colorado. October 1991. See at < http://dieoff.com/page143.htm >;
– “Beyond Oil: The threat to food and fuel in the coming decades, A summary report”, Complex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire. For Carrying Capacity, Inc. Ballinger Publishing Co. Nov. 1986. p36.

203. “Geography 100: The Physical Environment under Stress”, Petroleum Tutorial. Thomas Detwyler. January 2001. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. See at < http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/courses/geog100/petrol-shrinknete.htm? >.

204. Gever, J., Kaufman, R., Skole, D., & Vorosmarty, C. (1991). Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades (3rd edition). Niwot: University Press of Colorado. (p67).

205. “Geography 100: The Physical Environment under Stress”, Petroleum Tutorial. Thomas Detwyler. January 2001. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. See at < http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/courses/geog100/petrol-shrinknete.htm? >.

206. “Analyst says power plant demand will overwhelm gas industry”, Oil and Gas Journal, June 29, 2001. See at < http://ogj.pennnet.com/articles/web_article_display.cfm?ARTICLE_CATEGORY=TOPST&ARTICLE_ID=105950 >.

207. For data on coal production see, “The Coalprod Database: Historical Production Data for the Major Coal-Producing Regions of the Conterminous United States”, Robert C. Milici, U.S.G.S. Open-File Report 97-447. June 15, 2001. See at < http://energy.er.usgs.gov/products/openfile/OFR97-447/text.htm >.

208. “Cleaning Up Coal”, U.S. Department of Energy. See at < www.fe.doe.gov/education/intro_coal.html >.

209. News item. Reuters, New York, June 5, 2001.

210. “Natural-gas prices fuel energy debate”, Pete Millard. The Business Journal. March 14, 2003. See at < http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2003/03/17/story5.html >.

211. See at < http://www.lanl.gov/projects/cctc/factsheets/tampa/tampaedemo.html >.

212. EPA paper discussing the Fischer-Tropsch process: see at < http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/fuels/altfuels/fischer.pdf >. A web search will find numerous links to these processes.

213.  News Item, Platt.com Global Energy. February 27, 2003. See at < http://www.platts.com/archives.shtml#96840 >.

214. See, Gever, John; Kaufmann, Robert; Skole, David; and Vorosmarty, Charles, Ed.s, Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decade, 3rd edition, University Press of Colorado. October 1991;
– “Titanic Sinks”, Jay Hanson, June 25, 1998. See at < http://dieoff.com/page143.htm >, note the graph about one-fourth into the paper.

215. “Chapter 5 Advanced Power Systems”. Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, 1999. See at < http://www.osti.gov/portfolio/Energy_html/Chap5.htm >.

216. “U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2001 Review”, Fred Freme. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Revised 5/6/2002. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/special/feature.html >.

217. “Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis”, Albert A. Bartlett. Negative Population Growth: Special Report. See at < http//www.npg.org/specialreports/bartlett_section3.htm >.

218. “Clean Coal? New Technologies Reduce Emissions, but Sharp Criticisms Persist”, Lisa Kosanovic. E Magazine. January 2, 2002. See at < http://www.emagazine.com/january-february_2002/0102curr_coal.html >.

219. “Weekly Statistics”, Burlington Northern Railway. See at < http://www.bnsf.com/business/coal/html/coalstatistics.html >.

220. “Reducing Mercury Pollution from Electric Power Plants”, Matt Little. Issues in Science and Technology, Perspectives, Summer 2002. Northeast-Midwest Institute, Washington, D.C. See at < http://www.nemw.org/MercuryNASmLittleSummer2002.pdf >.

221. Matt Little. Summer 2002.

222. “Mercury and Power Plants: Can Technology Meet the Challenge?”, Matt Little. Northeast Midwest Economic Review, November/December 2001. See at < http://www.nemw.org/ER0111.pdf >. p11

223. Personal Email to the author from Michelle Rosier, Northstar (Minnesota) Sierra Club Air Toxics Organizer, August 20, 2003.

224. “Clean Coal? New Technologies Reduce Emissions, but Sharp Criticisms Persist”, Lisa Kosanovic. E Magazine. January 2, 2002. See at < http://www.emagazine.com/january-february_2002/0102curr_coal.html >.

225. “The Department of Energy Strategic Plan”, Draft: August 6, 2003. U.S. Department of Energy. See at < http://strategicplan.doe.gov/ >. See printable version at < http://strategicplan.doe.gov/printversion.htm >. Comments regarding the DOE plan will officially end on September 11, 2003. Email: <StrategicPlan@hq.doe.gov>.

226. “The Christian Science Monitor”, Gail Russell Chaddock. July 28, 2003. See at < http://www.csmonitor.com/ >.

227. Atom World. See at < http://www.iaea.or.at/worldatom/Press/P_release/2003/npstats2002.pdf >.

228. “Japanese Energy Crisis Not Over Yet”, The Associated Press, July 18, 2003.The New York Times Company. See at < http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/international/AP-Japan-Energy-Crisis.html?ex=1059545006&ei=1&en=2358bec5fa10e8b0 >.

229. A non-governmental or industry source for information on nuclear energy and uranium is the Amsterdam based WISE Uranium Project, a part of World Information Service on Energy.  The purpose of the Website is to cover the health and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel production. See at < http://www.antenna.nl/wise/ncidx.html >.

230. For a map showing the transportation routes on nuclear wastes in Minnesota, see < http://www.citizen.org/cmep/atomicatlas/StatePages/mn.htm >. The source is the "Atomic Atlas Project", a project of Public Citizen (Ralph Nader's organization.)

231. The Nuclear Control Institute. See information at < http://www.nci.org/new/nci-pro.htm >.

232. “Net Energy Yield of Nuclear Power”, Gene Tyner, Sr. June 27, 2001. Oklahoma Institute for a Viable Future. See at < http://home.mmcable.com/oivf/index.html >, specifically, note Table 2 and Table 3;
Net Energy Yield of Nuclear Power”, Gene Tyner, Sr. June 27, 2001. Oklahoma Institute for a Viable Future. See at < http://home.mmcable.com/oivf/index.html >, specifically, note Table 2 and Table 3. Updated version, “Net Energy from Nuclear Power”, Gene Tyner, Sr. October 2002. Unpublished study. Personal correspondence to the author. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/nukpwr_tyner_g_net_energy_from_nuclear_power.htm >.

233. CNN, May 8, 2001.

234. Nuking the Atmosphere”, Mark Francis Cohen, MotherJones.com. May 24, 2001 . See at < http://www.indymedia.org/front.php3?article_id=42812&group=webcast >.

235. “Supply of Uranium: UIC Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper # 75”, Uranium Information Centre Ltd., Australia. August 2002. See at < http://www.uic.com.au/nip75.htm >;
– Official estimates of fissionable uranium are at < http://www.antenna.nl/wise/uranium/index.html#DU >;
“Energy for Tomorrow’s World”, World Energy Council, 1993. See at < http://home.mmcable.com/oivf/bibliography.htm >.

236. “Uranium Industry Annual 2002”, Douglas Bonnar, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, National Energy Information Center. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/plugs/pluia02.html >. June 30, 2003.

237. “The coming helium shortage”, National Materials Advisory Board of the National Research Council. See at < http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/ci/31/i06/html/06chem.html >;
– For a pebble bed modular reactor simulation, see at < http://www.pbmr.com/simulator/800.html >.

238. “Nuking the Atmosphere”, Mark F. Cohen, MotherJones.com. May 24, 2001. See at < http://www.indymedia.org/front.php3?article_id=42812&group=webcast >.

239. See full House text at < http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c107:1:./temp/~c107z3tDOY:e1347: > and Senate text at < http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c107:6:./temp/~c107eqB4Gm:: >;
– How Congress views energy is reflected in S.597, the “Comprehensive and Balanced Energy Policy Act of 2001. Introduced March 22, 2001. See text at < http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c107:3:./temp/~c107yYHuNc:: > and the full text at < http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_cong_bills&docid=f:s597is.txt.pdf >.
 

References: Part III

1. “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Garrett Hardin. December 13, 1968. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/hardin_g_tragedy_of_the_commons.htm >.

2. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors the “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network”, a Website with more than 600 Website links and browser access to 80,000 documents related to energy efficiency and renewable energy information. See at < http://www.eren.doe.gov/ >. Caution, the items are often narrow in scope rather than reflecting an integrated and comprehensive view of energy matters.

3. Engines of Our Ingenuity “No. 984: Failed Conservation?”, John H. Lienhard. See at < http://www.uh.edu/admin/engines/epi984.htm >.

4. “Why Energy Efficiency is not Enough”, Horace Herring. Presentation at the Second Biennial International Workshop, Advances in Energy Studies, Porto Venere, Italy, May 23 - 27, 2000. p5. See at < www.chim.unisi.it/portovenere.html >.

5. Horace Herring. May 23 - 27, 2000.

6. “In unison governors call for energy conservation”, Environmental News Network. August 17, 2001. See at < http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2001/08/08172001/governors_44664.asp >.

7. “Why Energy Efficiency is not Enough”. Horace Herring. Presentation at the Second Biennial International Workshop, Advances in Energy Studies, Porto Venere, Italy, May 23 - 27, 2000. See at < www.chim.unisi.it/portovenere.html >.

8. Patrick Burns, Director, Population & Habitat Program, National Audubon Society. January 2003. See at < http://www.audubonpopulation.org/sections/news/consumehabitat.cfm >.

9. Harrison, Lawrence E. & Huntington, Samuel P., Editors. Culture Matters: How values shape human progress, Basic Books, New York. 2000;
– Harrison, Lawrence E., The Pan-American Dream: Do Latin America's cultural values discourage true partnership with the United States and Canada, Basic Books, 1997.

10. “Big User – Or Just Efficient”, Issues & Insights, Investors Business Daily. June 21, 2001.

11. U.S. Census: 1967: 198.7 million, 1997: 267.7 million; 69 million or 34.7% increase. “1998 Annual Energy Review”, Energy Information Agency. Table 2.9.

12. Calculations:
21.5 – 14.1 = 7.4; 7.4 ÷ 14.1 =  52.4%. If population had not grown: 9,849 ÷ 14.1 = 698.5 gallons; 9,849 ÷ 21.5 = 458.1 gallons; 698.5 – 458.1 = 240.1 gallons or –34.2%. And, ((mpg x population, 21.5 x 267.7 = 5,755.5 billion gallons) - (14.1 x 267.7 = 3,774.5) = 2,001 or 2.0 billion, 34.7%); (14.1 x 198.7 = 2,801.6; + 973 gals. 973 ÷ 2,801.6 = 34.7% gallon increase solely due to population. 198.7 x 9,849 = 1,956,996.3; 267.7 x 9,849 = 2,636,577.3; difference: 679,581, or 34.7%;  21.5 x 198.7 = 4,272; difference:  1,483.5, = 34.7%).

13. “Minnesota Energy Planning Report”, Draft; Minnesota Department of Commerce; October 2001. p22; See Figure 1-29: Minnesota Population and Gasoline Consumption Trends; and Figure 1.32: Vehicle Miles Traveled.

14. Recommended reading is the book by Dr. Walter Youngquist, GeoDestinies: The inevitable control of Earth resources over nations and individuals. Regarding alternative energies, specifically note Chapter 13: Alternative energy sources: Non-renewable; Chapter 14, Alternative energy sources: Renewable; and Chapter 27, Myths and realities of mineral resources. Briefly stated, Dr. Youngquist writes, “geology, not economics, ultimately controls the availability of Earth resources.” p421.

15. Minnesota energy legislation is compared in “Comparison Summary of Four Major Energy Proposals”, Mike Bull, House Research Department. February 28, 2001. See at < http://www.house.leg.state.mn.us/hrd/bs/82/enrgcomp.htm >;
– 1. Energy Security and Reliability Act H.F. 1323; Representatives Jennings and Wolf;
– 2. Minnesota Retail Electric Competition Act Minnesota H.F. 710; Chamber of Commerce;
– 3. Energy Reliability and Affordability Act H.F. 492; People Organized for Workers, the Environment and Ratepayers; and
– 4. Keeping the Lights On H.F. 659.

16. “Renewables In Global Energy Supply: An IEA Fact Sheet”, International Energy Agency, November 2002. See at < www.iea.org/leaflet.pdf >.

17. To gain a better understanding of net energy balance of windcommerce and other alternative energies, please perform a Web search for “eMergy” to locate Websites discussing these relationships. The eMergy energy calculations are based on Howard T. Odum's archetypal energy accounting text, Environmental Accounting: eMergy and environmental decision making;

Odum, Howard T. 1996; Environmental Accounting: eMergy and environmental decision making, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996. 370 pages. ISBN 0-471-11442-1. See at < http://dieoff.com/emergy.pdf >;
– Odum, Howard T. 2000; eMergy Accounting, April 2000. Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida;

18. Karl E. Knapp and Theresa L. Jester report a more optimistic outcome in, Initial Empirical Results for the Energy Payback Time of Photovoltaic Modules. John Wiley & Sons, 1996. September 2000. See at < www.siemenssolar.com/Paybackstudy.pdf >. Consider the source and the assumptions built into the model for their plausibility. For example, the authors arrive at cost using full production assumptions.

19. “Net Energy: Introduction”. Cutler J. Cleveland and Robert K. Kaufmann. Oil Analytics. See at < http://www.oilanalytics.org/neten1.html >.

20. See at < http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/dept.asp?dept_id=290 >.

21. “Net Energy from Wind Power”, Gene Tyner, Sr. Oct 20, 2001. Gene Tyner, Sr., Unpublished manuscript. Ph.D., Economics/Interdisciplinary: Economics, Civil Engineering and Environmental Science. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_tyner_g_net_energy.htm >. p8, Table 3a. Line 22 Col H.

22. Gene Tyner, Sr. Oct 20, 2001. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_tyner_g_net_energy.htm >. p2, Table 1 Line 9.

23. Syncrude information source: < http://www.syncrude.com/ >;
– See also < www.syncrude.org/about_tarsands.html >.

24. “Titanic Sinks”, Jay Hanson, June 25, 1998. See at < http://dieoff.com/page143.htm >.

25. “Fuelling the Climate Crisis: The continental energy plan”, Dermot Foley, David Suzuki Foundation (Canada), Climate Change Campaign. May 2001. See at < http://www.davidsuzuki.org/fuel/ >;

– For an analysis of the effects of the Kyoto Protocols on Minnesota see “The Kyoto Treaty and Minnesota: Little Environmental Benefit at Great Economic Cost”, American Petroleum Institute, January 11, 1999. See at < http://www.api.org/globalclimate/Minnesota.pdf >.

26. “The Department of Energy Strategic Plan”, Draft: August 6, 2003. U.S. Department of Energy. See at < http://strategicplan.doe.gov/ >. See printable version at < http://strategicplan.doe.gov/printversion.htm >. Comments regarding the DOE plan will officially end on September 11, 2003. Email: <StrategicPlan@hq.doe.gov>.

27. “Energy Planning Report: 2002 Update”, December 2002. (Actual delivery date, January 7, 2003.) Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division.

28. “Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Introduction”, Alternative Energy Institute, < http://www.altenergy.org/2/renewables/hydrogen_and_fuel_cells/hydrogen_and_fuel_cells.html >.

29. “Global Manipulators Move Beyond Petroleum, Susan Bryce. In “New Dawn Magazine”, No. 63, November - December 2000. See at < http://newdawnmagazine.com/Articles/Beyond_Petroleum.html >;
– Ballard Power Systems < www.ballard.com >;
– Schatz Energy Research Center < www.humboldt.edu/~serc/index.shtml >.

30. For further information, see, “Zinc-Air Fuel Cells” at the Voltaic Power website. See more at < http://www.voltaicpower.com/Secondaries/zn-air-fc.htm >;
– “Zinc-Air Fuel Cells (ZAFC)”, Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC). See < http://www.fctec.com/fctec_types_zafc.asp >;
–“Laboratory Moves Toward $100 Million Agreement To Develop Zinc-Air Fuel Cell Technology”, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, News Release September 11, 1997. NR-97-09-02. See at < http://www.llnl.gov/llnl/06news/NewsReleases/1997/NR-97-09-02.html >.

31. “Vehicle of Change”, Lawrence D. Burns, J. Byron McCormick, and Christopher E. Borroni-Bird; Scientific American, October 2002. p64.

32. “Hydrogen: Technology and Policy”, Daniel Morgan and Fred Sissine. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. April 28, 1995, #95-540 SPR. See at < http://www.cnie.org/nle/eng-4.html >.

33. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

34. “Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Introduction”, Alternative Energy Institute. See at < http://www.altenergy.org/2/renewables/hydrogen_and_fuel_cells/hydrogen_and_fuel_cells.html >.

35. “Morning Edition”, David Kestenbaum, July 9, 2003. See at < http://discover.npr.org/features/feature.jhtml?wfId=1324227 >.

36. CNN News Report, June 12, 2003. See at < http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/science/06/12/hydrogen.ozone.ap/index.htm >.

37. “Energetic Limits To Growth”, Jay Hanson. “Energy Magazine”, Spring, 1999. See at < www.dieoff.com/page175.htm >.

38. “Hydrogen: Technology and Policy”, Daniel Morgan and Fred Sissine; Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, April 28, 1995, #95-540 SPR. See at < http://www.cnie.org/nle/eng-4.html >.

39. “Natural Capitalism Cannot Overcome Resource Limits”, Ted Trainer, 2001. School of Social Work, Univ. of NSW, Australia. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/trainer_fe_simon_lovins_critique.htm > and < http://www.arts.unsw.edu.au/tsw/D50NatCapCannotOvercome.html >.

40. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

41. Hydrogen: Technology and Policy”, Daniel Morgan and Fred Sissine; Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, April 28, 1995, #95-540 SPR. See at < http://www.cnie.org/nle/eng-4.html >.

42. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

43. “Hydrogen: Technology and Policy”, Daniel Morgan and Fred Sissine; Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, April 28, 1995, #95-540 SPR. See at < http://www.cnie.org/nle/eng-4.html >.

44. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

45. Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published.

46. “Fuel Cell Futility”, Chip Haynes. October 2001. The New Colonist. See at < http://www.newcolonist.com/fuelcells.html >.

47. “Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program”, George Thomas. Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA in “DOE Hydrogen Program Review”, San Ramon, CA, May 9-11, 2000. See at < http://www.eren.doe.gov/hydrogen/pdfs/storage.pdf >.

48. “Why Hydrogen is No Solution - Scientific Answers to Marketing Hype, Deception and Wishful Thinking”, Michael C. Ruppert. From The Wilderness Publications, August 18, 2003. See at < http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/081803_hydrogen_answers.html >.

49. “House panel cuts tax credit for hybrids”, Jeff Plungis. Detroit News.  April 4, 2003. See at < http://www.detnews.com/2003/business/0304/04/b03-127834.htm >.

50. “Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program”, George Thomas. Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA in “DOE Hydrogen Program Review”, San Ramon, CA, May 9-11, 2000. See at < http://www.eren.doe.gov/hydrogen/pdfs/storage.pdf >.

51. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

52. Ballard Power Systems. See at (< www.ballard.com >.

53. “Vehicle of Change”, Lawrence D. Burns, J. Byron McCormick, and Christopher E. Borroni-Bird. Scientific American, October 2002. p64.

54. “Third Quarter Report and News Release”, Dynetek Industries Ltd., September 30, 2001). See Dynetek at (http://www.dynetek.com/frameset.html ). Click “Fuel Cell Vehicles” or “Investors”.

55. “Toyota Plans to Start Selling Fuel Cell Cars in 2003 in Japan”, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Letter, July 2001. Ed. Peter Hoffmann. See at < http://www.hfcletter.com/letter/july01/ >.

56. “The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?”, Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published. See at < http://www.woodgas.com/hydrogen_economy.pdf >.

57. Baldur Eliasson and Ulf Bossel. Yet to be published.

58. For an overview of hybrid vehicle technology see < http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car9.htm >. For criticism and rebuttal see “The Electric Vehicle Rant Response”, R. T. Saur, Car Talk.com at < http://cartalk.cars.com/Mail/Electric/ >.

59. Minnesota Statutes regarding windcommerce see at < http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/stix2002/W/WI/wind_energy.html >;
– Minnesota Statutes regarding alternative energies see at < http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/stix2002/A/AL/alternative_energy_sources.html >;
– Minnesota Statutes regarding energy see at < http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/stix2002/E/EN/energy.html >.

60. “Renewable Energy: Not Cheap, Not ‘Green’,” Robert L. Bradley Jr. Cato Policy Analysis No. 280, Cato Institute. August 27, 1997. See at <C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\My Webs\mnsustain4\windpower_cato_part1_renewable_energy.htm >.

61. The “Darmstadt Manifesto”, in, “The Case Against Windfarms”, Country Guardian, Great Britain, May 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_case_against_windfarms_guardian.htm >.
62. “Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >.

63. “Net Energy from Wind Power”, Gene Tyner, Sr. October 2001. Unpublished study in personal correspondence to the author. p2, Table 1. L-9., p8, Table 3a, L-22 Col.-H. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_tyner_g_net_energy.htm >.

64. Gene Tyner, Sr. October 2001. p9, Table 3b, L-23, Col. O.

65. Windprone areas are illustrated in the DOE 2000 Year In Review.Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >.

66. “Wind Energy Potential – An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States”, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 1991.

67.Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >.

68. “Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >. Note map p16: Minnesota Potential.

69. “Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >. Note map p16: Minnesota Potential.

70. “California dreamin' and Minnesota nice”, Gordon Leighton, Business Forum (Minneapolis) Star Tribune, September 17, 2002. pD3.

71. Minnesota wind map: < http://www.baywinds.com/new/MinnesotaWind.html >;
– Iowa wind map: < http://www.energy.iastate.edu/renewable/wind/assessment/windpics/annual.gif >;
– Wisconsin wind map: < http://www.baywinds.com/new/wiscpot.html >.

72. “Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy, May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. , p19. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >.

73. “Government energy policy unrealistic, says Academy”, The Royal Academy of Engineering, News Release. August 30, 2002. London;
– Research study: “An Engineering Appraisal of the Policy and Innovation Unit’s Energy Review”, Mr. B. Wilson MP, Minister of State for Energy and Industry. August 2002. See at < http://www.raeng.org.uk/ >.

74. “Status Report on Solar Trough Power Plants”, “#8. Societal and Policy Implications of Solar Thermal Power”, DOE. See at < http://www.firstgov.gov/fgsearch/resultstrack.jsp?sid=53906365&url=http://www.eren.doe.gov/troughnet/pdfs/status-part3.pdf >.

75. “Renewable Energy: Not Cheap, Not ‘Green’”, Robert L. Bradley Jr. Cato Institute. August 1997. See at <http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_cato_part1_renewable_energy.htm  >.

76. Enron Wind Company “Newsroom”, See at < http://www.wind.enron.com/newsroom/gov/index.html >.

77. Data submitted to the Senate Energy Committee Hearing Regarding Windpower, February 26, 2003. Jo Anne Sellner, Director, Minnesota Senate Counsel & Research. p1.

78. “Minnesota Incentives for Renewable Energy”. Sustainable Minnesota Web Site. See at < http://www.ies.ncsu.edu/dsire/library/includes/map2.cfm?CurrentPageID=1&State=MN >.

79. “Wind Power Plan in Limbo”, Charles S. Johnson, The Montana Standard, Butte, Montana. December 19, 2002.

80. “Minneapolis: Xcel Energy seeks improved power lines for wind farms,” Xcel Energy, News Releases, December 31, 2001. See at < http://www.xcelenergy.com/NewsRelease/mostRecent.ASP >.

81. See Enron Wind at < http://www.wind.enron.com/inside/casestudies/lb1.html >, and table of wind developments in the Midwest at < http://www.windustry.org/windustry/sites/region_mw.htm >.

82. “Curse of the Wind Turns to Farmers' Blessing”, Douglas Jehl, San Antonio Express-News. November 26, 2000.

83. “Minneapolis: Xcel Energy seeks improved power lines for wind farms,” Xcel Energy, News Releases, December 31, 2001. See at < http://www.xcelenergy.com/NewsRelease/mostRecent.ASP >.

84.  For information of installed windmill cost in this region see the Wisconsin windmill company Baywinds at < http://www.baywinds.com/new/InstallationCosts.html >.

85. “Why Renewable Energy Is Not Cheap and Not Green: Killing Birds: The ‘Avian Mortality’ Problem”, Robert L. Bradley, Jr. National Center for Policy Analysis. See at < http://www.ncpa.org/studies/renew/renew2d.html >.

86. Mortality Reduction, Impact Avoidance, and Deterrent Considerations”; Strickland, Dale, W.P. Erickson, G. Johnson, D. Young, and R. Good: “Risk Reduction Avian Studies at the Foote Creek Rim Wind Plant in Wyoming”;
– Dooling, R.J. and B. Lohr: “The Role of Hearing in Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines”; Gray, L. Darryl: “State-of-the-Art Permitting and Environmental Review Process for Wind Repowering Projects: New Avoidance and Mitigation Strategies”;
– “
Proceedings”, National Avian -Wind Power Planning Meeting IV, Carmel, California, May 16-17, 2000. See at < http://www.nationalwind.org/pubs/avian00/ >;
– “Communication Towers: A Deadly Hazard to Birds: Report Documents a Report Compiled By American Bird Conservancy Killing of 230 Bird Species”; Shire, Gavin G.; Brown, Karen; Winegrad, Gerald. June, 2000. American Bird Conservancy, 1250 24th St. N.W., Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20037. See at < www.abcbirds.org >;
– State of Minnesota 1995 Avian study.
– “Proceedings of National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III,” PNAWPPM-III. 2000. San Diego, California, May 1998. Prepared for the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee by LGL Ltd., King City, Ont. 202 p. Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee, c/o RESOLVE Inc., 1255 23rd St. NW, Suite 275, Washington, D.C. 20037. June 2000. See at < http://www.nationalwind.org/pubs/avian98/avian98.pdf >.

87. “Maryland Aims to Save Birds from Wind Turbines”, David Dishneau. Associated Press. December 19, 2000. See at < http://news.findlaw.com/ap/o/1110/12-19-2002/20021219033007_21.html >.

88. “Company Withdraws Wind Farm Application”, Paul J. Nyden, The Charleston Gazette, January 7, 2003. Friends of the Allegheny Front. See at < http://www.friendsofthealleghenyfront.org/newsdown1.htm >;
“Conservancy Questions Windpower Project, The Highlands Voice, November, 2002, Volume 35 Number 11. West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, P.O. Box 306, Charleston, WV 25321 at < http://wvhc.drw.net/VoiceNov02.pdf >.

89. For the sound of an actual operating turbine visit < http://www.page.to/mesa-eolica >. Near bottom of page.

90. “Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Whisper H40 Wind Turbine”, Arlinda Huskey & M. Meadors, National Wind Technology Center. June 1, 2001. Note Table 1. See at < http://www.windenergy.com/SUPPORT/downloads.html >.

91.Two new projects are giving wind power a lift in Illinois”, Steve Daniels. Navitas Energy Company News, March 12, 2001. See at < http://www.windpower.com/feature_detail.cfm?FeatureID=7 >.

92. “Renew Wisconsin”. See at < http://www.renewwisconsin.org/windfarm/addison.html >.

93. Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound. Hyannis, Massachusetts. See at < http://www.saveoursound.org/moreoffshore.html >.

Similar other organizations:
                United States:

1.  West Bend, Wisconsin. See at < www.misplacedwindpower.com >.

2.  Hyannis, Massachusetts. Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound. The Alliance has a useful list of state and international links. See at< http://www.saveoursound.org/moreoffshore.html >.

3.  Pennsylvania – West Virginia. Friends of the Allegheny Front

< http://www.friendsofthealleghenyfront.org/index.htm >.

“The 200 wind turbines up to 465 feet tall … will impact scenic areas in the Dolly Sods view shed, farms and private properties in the Allegheny Fore Knobs, and valleys and ridges beyond.”

International:

1.  “That neither the Government, the wind industry, … has the right to jeopardise the landscape and the natural environment that future generations are entitled to enjoy …” “Conclusions of the First National Conference in Defence of the Landscape Against the Construction of Windfarms.” National Committee for the Rational Siting of Windfarms Conference, October 28 and 29, 2001, Casa Grande, Quintana de Valdivielso (Burgos). See at < http://www.terra.es/personal2/mercyl/conclusionesingles.htm >. Also see at < www.mnforsustain.org/energy_windpower_intl_conference.htm >.

2.  England. “Our National Parks and AONB's [Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty] were under threat from inappropriate developments; in this case wind power.” See at <  http://www.wind-farm.co.uk >.

3.   England. “Wind farms are a great threat to the countryside, especially to upland areas. See at: < www.countryguardian.net >.

4.  England. Cumbria, Marton, Askam & Ireleth Windfarm Action Group. “They are noisy blots on the landscape that produce little else but noise. Sadly most people are unaware just how useless at generating electricity they really are!” See at < http://www.windfarm.fsnet.co.uk >.

5.  Germany. See at < http://wilfriedheck.tripod.com >.

6.  Holland. “We don't want them in our nature areas and not near villages” “… can make it clear that in this world there are more and more people in opposition …”. See at < http://home.wxs.nl/~hzwarber/wind/welkom.html >.

7.  New Zealand. “Why anyone would want to spoil the pristine New Zealand landscape with a peppering of turbines is beyond belief!” See at < www.geocities.com/tairgwaithactiongroup/links.html >.
8. Scotland. “Windfarms generate more than electricity - they generate heated debate!”. Drummuir Windfarm proposal, Drummuir, Scotland. See at < http://www.botriphnie.org.uk/windfarm.htm >.

94. “Wind Power Today: 2000 Year in Review”, U.S. Department of Energy. May 2001. DOE/GO-102001-1325. See at < http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28921.pdf >;
Wind Turbine Sites, Midwest Region”, Windustry Project, Affiliated with the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. Minneapolis, MN. See at < http://www.windustry.org/windustry/sites/region_mw.htm >;
– Also see < http://www.igc.apc.org/awea/faq/usresource.html >.

95. Minnesota and Federal subsidies see the Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division website at < http://www.state.mn.us/cgi-bin/portal/mn/jsp/content.do?subchannel=-536881511&programid=536885394&sc3=null&sc2=null&id=-536881350&agency=Commerce >;
– < http://www.state.mn.us/cgi-bin/portal/mn/jsp/content.do?subchannel=-536881511&id=-536881350&agency=Commerce > and select "renewable energy incentives".

96. “Support Wind Power! Write your representative in support of the Federal Wind Production Tax Credit (PTC) Today!” Enron Wind Company. See at < http://www.wind.enron.com/newsroom/gov/index.html >. See 107th Congress, H.R.876 or S.94, Title: “To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a 5-year extension of the credit for electricity produced from wind.”

97. Glenn R. Schleede. January 20, 2003.

98. “Wind Energy Money Changing & Wealth Transfers”, Glenn R. Schleede. Energy Market & Policy Analysis, Inc., P.O. Box 3875, Reston, VA 20195. July 12, 2003. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_money_changing_wealth_transfers_schleede_g.htm >.

99. “Wind Energy Economics in West Virginia”, Glenn R. Schleede. Energy Market & Policy Analysis, Inc., P.O. Box 3875, Reston, VA 20195. Note schedule, p16. January 20, 2003. See at < www.mnforsustain.org/energy/windpower_schleede_west_virginia_study.htm >.

100. “Restless wind provides boon to Lincoln County: but a tax cut has meant a pay cut …” Robert Franklin, Star Tribune. March 24, 2002. pB1.

101. Bay Winds windpower company (located in northeast Wisconsin) has a Website with a significant discussion of government sponsored windpower incentives and links to federal and state agencies describing those benefit programs. See at < http://www.baywinds.com/new/incentiv.htm >;
– See at < http://www.naseo.org/legislation/Barton_Energy_bill.pdf >.

102. Bay Winds Windpower Company, Wisconsin. See at < http://www.baywinds.com/new/incentiv.htm >.

103. For list of subsidies see the Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division at < http://www.state.mn.us/cgi-bin/portal/mn/jsp/content.do?subchannel=null&programid=536885394&sc3=null&sc2=null&id=-536881383&agency=Commerce >;
Notice of Request for Proposals for Community Wind Energy Projects”, Energy Information Center Minnesota Department of Commerce, St. Paul, MN 55101. September 18, 2003. See at < http://www.state.mn.us/cgi-bin/portal/mn/jsp/content.do?contentid=536901097&contenttype=EDITORIAL&hpage=true&agency=Commerce >.

104. “Democratic Energy”, New Rules Project of the Institute for Local Self-Reliance. See at < http://www.newrules.org/de/1002de.html >.

105. MN Statute 216B.1645 Power purchase contract or investment. Subd. 2.

106. State Of Minnesota Environmental Quality Board Statement Of Need And Reasonableness, In the Matter of the Proposed Adoption of Rules Governing the Siting of Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems. Minnesota Rules chapter 4401. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/windpower_minnesota_rules_.htm >.

107. See, “Enron News Release”, July 26, 2001.

108. Danish Wind Industry Association. December 2002. See at < http://www.windpower.dk/news/index.htm >;
– Discussion of the announcement at < http://wilfriedheck.tripod.com/windkr.htm >.

109. “Proposal for 4000 Watt Grid Intertie and Battery Backup Solar Electric Generation System”, “Proposal for 5500 Watt Grid Intertie and Battery Backup Solar Electric Generation System”, May 18, 2001. Solar Technologies, Inc., 147 S. River Street, Suite 207, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. See at  < http://www.solarquest.com/products/ >.

110. “Sunshine in the Forecast”, John C. Dvorak, Digital Spin, Forbes, May 14, 2002. p234.

111. See at < http://dieoff.com/pv.htm >.

112. At 45º latitude in the Midwest, the author has had a five panel solar array since 1982 heating both water and space. Profoundly dependent on the sun, these panels on cloud-free days during the heating months provide all the energy for hot water and at the same time daytime heating needs. Unfortunately, the fall season has sustained periods of cloudiness and 2/3rds of the heating months are long-night periods. The outside temperature does not significantly impact the ability to heat the house. For example, on a clear early February day with a high temperature of 0ºF, the daylight house temperature can be 70º F without use of the furnace. Note, snow must be physically removed or even under full sun solar panels can remain snow covered for days.

113. “2000 ASME International Solar Energy Conference”, Madison, WI, June 17-22, 2000. See < http://www.energylan.sandia.gov/photo/photos/9998/9998908U2.pdf >;
– “Solar Two: A Successful Power Tower Demonstration Project”, Hugh E. Reilly & James E. Pacheco. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0703.

114. See at < http://www.osti.gov/html/stt/biblio/current/stt2/stt2/abstdatb.html >.

115. “Contribution of Renewable Energy to the United States Energy Supply”, “Solar Thermal-Electric Power Plants”, DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse. 2000. See at < http://www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo/refbriefs/da8.html >.

116. Hayden, Howard C. The Solar Fraud - Why Solar Energy Won't Run the World, Cales Lake Publishing, P.O. Box 7594, Pueblo West, Colorado 81007-0595.

117. Report to Congress on Feasibility of 1,000 Megawatts of Solar Power in the Southwest by 2006”, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Dept., U.S. Department of Energy. August 2002. See < http://www.seia.org/1000 Final 8-29-02.pdf >. Note Table 3.

118. Solar Thermal Thematic Review Draft Report”, Report prepared for The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Washington, D.C. February 2001. Jay Mariyappan, T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, RSM Building, Prince Consort Rd., London, SW7 2BP UK. See at < http://www.solarpaces.org/SolarThermalThematicReview.pdf >.

119. “Looks like a train, runs like a train: But key to new rapid transit system is a bus”, Laurie Blake, (Minneapolis) Star Tribune, November 17, 2002. pB1;
– Bus rapid transit at the Federal Transit Administration at < http://www.fta.dot.gov/brt/ >.

120. “Bus Rapid Transit”, Government Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 20548. September 2001. GAO-01-984. Figure 6: Capital Cost Per Mile for Light Rail and Bus Rapid Transit, p21; Figure 7: Operating Cost Per Vehicle Revenue Hour, p26; and Figure 8: Operating Cost per Vehicle Mile, 1999, p27;
– Bus industry Website, Motorcoach Industry Facts”, American Bus Association. November 24, 2001. See at < http://www.buses.org/industry/ >.

121. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001, Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60. 14:16. p2. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >. p4.

122. “Information Distortion and Competitive Remedies in Government Transfer Programs: The Case of Ethanol”, Ronald N. Johnson, Department of Agricultural Economics & Economics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717;
– “
Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics”, Gary D. Libecap, Department of Economics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. Originally delivered at the World Bank National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. March, 2000.Washington, DC. See at < http://www.worldbank.org/research/abcde/washington_12/pdf_files/libecap.pdf >. See list of Conference papers at < http://wb.forumone.com/research/abcde/papers/index.f1ml >.

123. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, maintains a searchable database which can be used to examine relative food abundance or absence and potential impacts from biomass development in the U.S. See at < http://apps.fao.org/lim500/wrap.pl?FoodBalanceSheet&Domain=FoodBalanceSheet&Language=english >.

124. “Hot summer sparks global food crisis”, Geoffrey Lean, Environment Editor, The Independent (London), August 31, 2003. See at < http://news.independent.co.uk/world/environment/story.jsp?story=438726 >.

125. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001, Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60. 14:16. p2. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >.

126. Soule, Judith D. and Piper, Jon K., 1990. Farming in Nature's Image: An Ecological Approach to Agriculture, Island Press.

127. Youngquist, Walter; 1997. GeoDestinies: The inevitable control of Earth resources over nations and individuals. National Book Company, Portland, Oregon. See Chapter 14, “Alternative Energy Resources: Renewables, Ethanol: Facts, Fallacies, and Politics”.

128. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001, Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60. 14:16. p2. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >.

129. “Annual Report 2001”, Archer Daniels Midland. See at < http://www.admworld.com >.

130.  “Archer Daniels Midland Reports Second Quarter Results”, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL 62526. January 23, 2002. See at < http://www.admworld.com/meet/fuelsindustrials.htm >.

131. “Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare”, James Bovard, Policy Analysis, Cato Institute, Cato Policy Analysis No. 241. September 26, 1995. See at < http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-241.html >.

132. “Political Cash Crop”, Editorial, Investors Business Daily. Los Angeles, California. June 10, 2003. pB17. See at < www.investors.com >.

133. “Boon for corn, bane for fen: The state's largest ethanol plant in Marshall has been linked to the shrinking of a wildlife preserve.” Robert Franklin, (Minneapolis) Star Tribune, July 26, 2001. pA1.

134. “Testimony of Mr. Rodney Christianson”, Chief Executive Officer, South Dakota Soybean Processors before the Senate Agriculture Committee, July 6, 2001, Regarding The Renewable Fuels for Energy Security Act of 2001, S.1006, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. See at < http://energy.senate.gov/hearings/107-1/full_committee/s1006/christianson.htm >.

135. “Will higher natural gas prices lower corn planting intentions in the US? OSA Crop Marketing Group thinks it's likely”, Heath Key, SeedQuest News Release. March 4, 2003. See at <http://www.seedquest.com/News/releases/2003/march/5425.htm >.

136. “Energy and Dollar Costs of Ethanol Production with Corn”, David Pimentel; April 1998. Cornell University. In, Hubbert Center Newsletter # 98/2. p5. Note Table IV.  See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/v98n2/mkh-new7.html >.

137. “Energy Definitions and Conversion Factors”, Wisconsin Energy Statistics – 2001. p129.

138. Calculations:
Corn; 1 gallon ethanol = 24.729 kWh ÷ 107 kWh/bu; = 4.327 bu/gallon @$2.25/bu = $9.736/gallon. $9.736 ÷ 24.729 = $0.3937/kWh. 1 gallon gasoline = 36.62 kWh @ $1.50. $1.50 ÷ 36.62 = $0.041/kWh. $0.3937/kWh ÷ $0.041/kWh = 9.6:1. To obtain an equivalent energy by volume: 36.62 x $0.3937/kWh = $14.417. Check: 14.417 ÷ 9.6 = $1.50.

139. “Political Cash Crop”, Editorial, Investors Business Daily. Los Angeles, California. June 10, 2003. pB17. < www.investors.com >.

140. Resources Future Program”, Barney Foran, and Chris Mardon; CSIRO (Australia). December 1999. See at < www.dwe.csiro.au/research/futures/publications/Biomassfu-els.pdf >. Note Appendix 2: Cost Estimates for Ethanol and Methanol.

141. Beyond 2025: Transitions to a Biomass-Alcohol Economy Using Ethanol and Methanol”, Barney Foran and Chris Mardon; December 1999. Resources Future Program, CSIRO (Australia). See #16, p8. See at < www.dwe.csiro.au/research/futures/publications/Biomassfu-els.pdf >.

142. “Driving biodiesel home”; Dan Lemke. AG Innovation News, October 2000, Vol. 9, No. 3. See at < http://www.auri.org/news/ainoct00/16bio.htm >.

143. “Economic Impact of Soy Diesel in Minnesota”, Summary/Highlights; Minnesota Department of Agriculture. February 2001. See at < http://www.mda.state.mn.us/AMS/ecoimpsoydiesel.html >.

144. “Biodiesel Production”, National Biodiesel Board. See at < http://www.biodiesel.org/ >.

145. “Farm Income Recovery Act Would Boost Loan Rates: Target Help Toward Family Farmers”, Senator Mark Dayton. November 5, 2001. News Release, See at < http://dayton.senate.gov/releases/nr110501.html >.

146. Senator Mark Dayton. November 5, 2001.

147. California, Texas, Washington, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana, and Wisconsin.

148. “Farm Income Recovery Act Would Boost Loan Rates: Target Help Toward Family Farmers”, Senator Mark Dayton; November 5, 2001News Release, See at < http://dayton.senate.gov/releases/nr110501.html >.

149. “Minnesota legislation to integrate biodiesel at most pumps, Move would enhance diesel and provide economic/environmental benefits”. Press Release, National Biodiesel Board, January 25, 2001. See at < http://www.biodiesel.org/Press%20releases/PressReleases01/mnlegislation.htm >.

150.  “New Study Indicates Soy-derived Fuel Can Lower Costs”, Soy News, June 2001; Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board. See at < http://www.arspb.org/publications/soynews/june2001.html#new >.

151. “Biofuels: Production and Potential: The Value to Local Economies”, John I. Zerbe; Winter 1988. Energy Research, Development, and Application Program, U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. University of Wisconsin. See at < http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1988/zerbe88a.pdf >.

152. 25 million gallons is in the ballpark, producing about 950 million kWh (25 million x 38 kWh/gallon).

153. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001. Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60, 14:16. p10. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >.

154. Pimentel, David. March 14, 2001. p12.

155. Morris, David; March 22, 1994. The Economics of Plant Matter Derived Electricity, Institute for Local Self-Reliance. Originally delivered at the conference titled, “Renewable Electricity: Farming a Sustainable Energy Crop”, Collegeville, Minnesota, Note Table A. See at < http://www.me3.org/issues/biomass/biospch1.html >.

156. Foran, Barney and Mardon, Chris; December 1999. Beyond 2025: Transitions to a Biomass-Alcohol Economy Using Ethanol and Methanol, Resources Future Program, CSIRO (Australia). See at < www.dwe.csiro.au/research/futures/publications/Biomassfu-els.pdf >.

157. “Land, Energy and Water: The Constraints Governing Ideal U.S. Population Size”, David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel; 1990.Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Note Table 3. Third in a series of NPG Forum papers exploring the idea of an optimum population. Taken together the papers constitute a cross-disciplinary study of carrying capacity in relation to many variables. The Optimum Population Series is available from Negative Population Growth, Inc., 210 The Plaza, P.O. Box 1206, Teaneck, NJ 07666-1206; –See at < http://dieoff.com/page136.htm >.

158. “Mystery Island”, The Economist, March 6, 2003. See at < http://www.economist.co.uk/world/asia/displayStory.cfm?story_id=1623170 >.

159. “Carrying Out Agenda 21”, Paul Hofseth. Delivered at “Green Plans for the 21st Century: The Pacific Rim”, October 21-23, 1993, San Rafael, California. Renewal Resources Institute. See at < http://www.rri.org/conf93/hofseth.html >.

160. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001, Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60 14:16. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >.

161. “AG Chemical Usage: 2000 Corn (Soybean) Chemical Usage”, 2001 Minnesota Agricultural Statistics, Minnesota Department of Agriculture.

162. “Energy and Dollar Costs of Ethanol Production with Corn”, David Pimentel; April 1998. Cornell University. In, Hubbert Center Newsletter # 98/2. See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/v98n2/mkh-new7.html >.

163. Youngquist, Walter; 1997, GeoDestinies: The inevitable control of Earth resources over nations and individuals. National Book Company, Portland, Oregon. Note chapter 14, “Alternative Energy Resources: Renewables, Ethanol: Facts, Fallacies, and Politics”.

164. Pimentel, David; March 14, 2001. Biomass Utilization, Limits of, Cornell University. In, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology EN002C-60, 14:16. p7. See at < http://www.academicpress.com/epst/biomass.pdf >;
– Also see, Pimentel, et al., 1988.

165. Wackernagel, Mathis and Rees, William, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing human impact on the earth; New Society Publishers, PO Box 189, Gabriola Island, B.C. Canada, 1996; Rev. 1999 data.

166. "Sustainable Population Levels Using Footprint Data", Dell Erickson. March 20, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/erickson_d_determining_sustainable_population_levels.htm >.

167. Dell Erickson. March 20, 2000.

168. Hardin, Garrett; 1974. “Living on a Lifeboat”, In, Stalking the Wild Taboo, Garrett Hardin Reprint Series, Social Contract Press, Petoskey, MI. 1996, 3rd Ed. Part five is titled “Need as Superstition” and, among other's, includes the referenced essay and a response “Trouble in the Lifeboat” (1978) and “Carrying Capacity as an Ethical Concept” (1976). See at < mnforsustain.org/authors/g_hardin/lifeboat_ethics >.

169. Fletcher, Joseph; Spring 1991. Chronic Famine and the Immorality of Food Aid: A Bow to Garrett Hardin, In, Population and Environment, Volume 12, Number 3. See at < http://www.dieoff.com/page91.htm  >.

170. “Energy and Dollar Costs of Ethanol Production with Corn”, David Pimentel; April 1998. Cornell University. In, Hubbert Center Newsletter # 98/2. See at < http://hubbert.mines.edu/news/v98n2/mkh-new7.html >.

 

References: Part IV

1. Youngquist, Walter; 1997. GeoDestinies: The Inevitable Control of Earth Resources over Nations and Individuals; National Book Company, Portland, OR. p285.

2. “Populations Outrunning Water Supply as World Hits 6 Billion”, Lester R. Brown and Brian Halweil. Worldwatch Institute. September 23, 1999. See at < http://www.worldwatch.org/alerts/990923.html >.

3. “China: The Ruined land, Part 3, China in an energy quandary”, Jasper Becker. Asia Times. August 28, 2003. See at < http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/EH28Ad01.html >.

4. “Thirsty China to divert the mighty Yangtze”, CNN.com; World, November 15, 2001. See at < http://europe.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/east/11/15/china.water/index.html >.

5. “U.S. Food Production Threatened By Rapid Population Growth”, David Pimentel; October 30, 1997 Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P Street, NW; Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20036.

6. “Stop Mines from Sucking Nevada Dry”, Sierra Magazine, Sierra Club, San Francisco, California. July/August 2000. p56.

7. “As Seawater Desalination Plant Readies for Day 1, Eyes Turn to Tampa, Fla.” Neil Johnson, Tampa Tribune, Florida. January 6, 2003. See at < http://hsweb01.screamingmedia.com/PMA/pma_newsarticle1_krt.htm?SMDOCID=knightridder_2003_01_06_krtbn_0000-0319-TM-WATER-PLANT&SMContentSet=0 >.

8. “Water; oil of the future?”, Alanna Mitchell. The Globe and Mail (Canada), August 5, 2001. See at < http://www.globeandmail.com/servlet/RTGAMArticleHTMLTemplate/D/20000805/water?tf=RT/fullstory.html&cf=RT/config-neutral&slug=water&date=20000805&archi ve=RTGAM >.

9. “U.S. Food Production Threatened By Rapid Population Growth”, David Pimentel; October 30, 1997 Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P Street, NW; Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20036;
– “Food Security Deteriorating in the Nineties: Grain Prices More Volatile”, Lester R. Brown, Worldwatch Institute, March 6, 1997;
– Brown, Lester R., 1995, Who Will Feed China: Wake-up Call for a Small Planet; The Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

10. Quinn Daniel, 1995. Ishmael: An adventure of the mind and spirit, Bantam Books; Reissue July 1, 1995.

11. “Bananas not on verge of extinction, says FAO”, “Food agency calls for greater diversity in commercial bananas”, Food and Agriculture Organization, UN, Newsroom. January 30, 2003. See at < http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2003/13120-en.html >.

12. “Reuters”, January 18, 2001. See at < http//www.agriculture.com/default.sph/AgNews.class?FNC=sideBarMore__ANewsindex_html___44761 >.

13. “Natural gas prices affect nitrogen fertilizer costs”, John E. Sawyer, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University. January 29, 2001. See at < http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2001/1-29-2001/natgasfert.html >.

14. See, “Hot Markets for Water Rights”, William M. Turner, WaterBank. August 11, 2001. (See at < www.waterbank.com/Newsletters/nws27.html >. Note: “WaterBank” is a firm which seeks to create a marketplace for all manner of water assets; markets water in all its forms —assets to new technology— acting primarily as broker dealing with actual commercial transactions.

15. “Water Officials Warn of Possible 80% Cutbacks”, John Johnson. Los Angeles Times. February 2, 2001.

16. “Drought could be our next crisis: Population growth threatens water supply”, Glen Martin; San Francisco Chronicle, July 22, 2001. See at < http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/07/22/MN203356.DTL >.

17. Glen Martin, July 22, 2001.

18. “California's Energy Crisis What It Means for Water Agencies”. Association of California Water Agencies; 2001. See at < http://www.acwanet.com/products/acwausa/energycrisis/whatitmeans.asp >.

19. “Blood and Water: Israel and Palestine struggle over water in an arid land”, Jessica McCallin. Grist Magazine, February 26, 2002. See at < http://www.gristmagazine.com/grist/maindish/mccallin022602.asp?source=daily >.

20. “The next major conflict in the Middle East: Water Wars”, Adel Darwish; Geneva Conference on the Environment and Quality of Life, 1994. In, “Mideast News”. See at < www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm >.

21. David Pimentel, 2001. Personal Email to the author.

22. “Human Population Numbers as a Function of Food Supply”, Russell Hopfenberg and David Pimentel. Environment, Development and Sustainability; 3: 1-15, 2001. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/pimentel_hopfenberg_human_population__food_supply.htm >.

23. “U.S. Food Production Threatened By Rapid Population Growth”, David Pimentel; October 30, 1997 Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P Street, NW; Suite 240, Washington, D.C. 20036;
– “Food Security Deteriorating in the Nineties: Grain Prices More Volatile”, Lester R. Brown, Worldwatch Institute, March 6, 1997;
– Brown, Lester R., 1995, Who Will Feed China: Wake-up Call for a Small Planet; The Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

24. “Olduvai Cliff Revisited: The Olduvail Cliff Event ca. 2007”, Richard Duncan. March 5, 2001.

25. “Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply”. #1. Summary. June 12, 2001. EIA/DOE. See at < http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/california/june01article/casummary.html >.

26.  News Item, Platt.com Global Energy. February 28, 2003. See at < http://www.platts.com/archives.shtml#96830 >.

27. “Most of West in the Same Power Jam as California”, Peter G. Gosselin. L. A. Times, February 26, 2001.

28.  “Too many people, too little power; People longage, power shortage”, Ric Oberlink. San Diego Union Tribune, January 17, 2001. See at < www.signonsandiego.com/news/uniontrib/wed/index.html >.

29. New York Times, June 21, 2001.  See at < http://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/21/politics/21POLL.html >.

30. Public Institute of California, 500 Washington Street, Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111. See at < www.ppic.org >.

31. For a detailed study of California's population changes, see "A Project Spotlight - CAPS/Data Report, California" at < www.cap-s.org/datarpt96percent.html# >.

32. “Water Officials Warn of Possible 80% Cutbacks”, John Johnson. Los Angeles Times. February 2, 2001.

32. “Minnesota Energy Planning Report”, Draft; Minnesota Department of Commerce; October 2001. p22; Figure 1-29: Minnesota Population and Gasoline Consumption Trends; and Figure 1.32: Vehicle Miles Traveled.

33.  “Energy Crisis: Real or imagined… threat or opportunity”, “Investech Research”, January 19, 2001. In, “InvesTech Mutual Fund Advisor”, Jim Stack, Ed. Whitefish, MT. 59937.
 

References: Part V

1. “Quadrennial Energy Policy & Conservation Report 2000”, Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division. January 2001. See at < http://www.commerce.state.mn.us/pages/Energy/MainCIP.htm >;
“Keeping The Lights On: Securing Minnesota’s Energy Future”, Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division. September 6, 2000. See at < http://www.commerce.state.mn.us/pages/Energy/MainEnergyPolicy.htm >.

2. “Minnesota Energy Planning Report, Draft”, Minnesota Department of Commerce, Energy Division, St. Paul, MN 55101. October 24, 2001. See at < www.me3.org/ >.

3. “Beyond Sprawl: The cost of population growth to local communities”, Carrying Capacity Network. 1998; and “Per Capita Costs of Population Growth to Local Communities”, Starting Point: A Network Report. Carrying Capacity Network. April, 1997. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/pop_per_capita_cost_of_population_growth_ccn.htm >. Note the appendices.

4. “Deregulation in Minnesota's Energy Future”, Marisa Helms, Minnesota Public Radio News, January 8, 2000. See at < http://news.mpr.org/features/200101/08_newsroom_energy/legislature.shtml >.

5. “Annual Energy Review 2000”, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0384(2000). Table 63;
– “Electric Power Projections for Electricity Market Module Region Mid-Continent Area Power Pool”. Washington, DC, August 2001. Supplement to the Annual Energy Review 2002. This is a schedule of MAPP energy projections 2000 to 2020 by source: < http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/supplement/suptab_63.htm >.

6. “Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the U.S., 2000”. Energy Information Administration. Table 12;
Planned Coal- and Petroleum-Fired Capacity Retirements at U.S. Electric Utilities, 2001 Through 2005”. September 2002. See < http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/ipp/html1/t12p01.html >.

7. The “Center for Energy and Economic Development” (CEED), is a non-profit coal industry organization with several scenarios relying on coal. See “Fueling Americas Future: Energy Choices in a Competitive Era”, at < http://www.ceednet.org/resources/rdirenewables/conclusions.asp >.

8. “Gross Domestic Product: Implicit Price Deflator 1996 = 100, Seasonally Adjusted”, Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. See at < http://www.stls.frb.org/fred/data/gdp/gdpdef >. 1st Quarter 2001 Index = 109.8; 4th Quarter 1999 Index = 105.22; Change = 4.58. Therefore, 1999 data was multiplied by 1.0458.

9. Gever, John; Kaufmann, Robert; Skole, David; and Vorosmarty, Charles, Eds., 1991; Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades, 3rd edition, University Press of Colorado. October 1991. See at < http://dieoff.com/page143.htm >. Note Gever's graph at top of page.

10. “How and Why Journalist Avoid the Population-Environment Connection”, T. Michael Maher; In, “Population and Environment”, Vol. 18, No. 4. 1997). See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/maher_michael_t_how_and_why_journalists_avoid_pop.htm >.

11. “Environmentalism in the 21st Century: Questioning Official Environmentalism”, Brian Tokar, ZMagazine. April 1997. See at < http://www.mapcruzin.com/environment21/tokar1.htm >.

12. “The Environmental Movement's Retreat from Advocating U.S. Population Stabilization (1970-1998): A First Draft of History.” Roy Beck and Leon Kolankiewicz, in “The Journal of Policy History”, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2000, Pennsylvania State University Press. The issue is devoted to population policies and sustainability —is important reading. This chapter is available online in two versions: longer —highly recommended < http://www.mnforsustain.org/beck_the_environmental_movement's_retreat_-long.htm > and shorter version —published in the Journal < http://www.mnforsustain.org/beck_environmental_movement_retreat_short.htm >;
– See also < www.numbersusa.com/cgi/text.cgi?Enviro >;
– “Population, Immigration, and the Environment, Why Green Groups Abandoned the Goal of Population Stabilization”, Center for Immigration Studies, CIS Paper #18, March 2001. See at < www.cis.org/articles/2001/forsaking/release.html >;
– “Role of U.S. population stabilization at the beginning of the modern environmental movement: Population Issues and the 1970-Era Environmental Movement”, Roy Beck. See at < http://www.numbersusa.com/interests/env_modernmove.html >;
– See also “Carrying Capacity Reconsidered,” David Price. In “Population and Environment”, September 1999.

13. For history and discussion of the Sierra Club's population policies adopted over the last 30 years see the “Sierrans for U.S. Population Stabilization ” website at < http://www.susps.org/history/scpolicy.html >.

14. “Sprawl Costs Us All”, Sierra Club, September 2000.

15. “Regionwide Planning Will Make The Problems Worse”, Albert A. Bartlett. Nov. 27, 1998. See at See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/bartlett_a_regionwide_planning.htm >;
– See other papers by Dr. Bartlett at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/bartlett >;
– Dr. Bartlett's website < http://csf.colorado.edu/authors/Bartlett.Albert/ >.

16. “Sprawl in California -A report on quantifying the role of the state's population boom.” Leon Kolankiewicz and Roy Beck, August 13, 2000. See at < www.numbersusa.com/cgi/text.cgi?Sprawlcali > and at < http://www.sprawlcity.org/ >.

17. “Population Growth and Sprawl in Minnesota”. Leon Kolankiewicz. November 30, 2000. See at < http://www.mnforsustain.org/kolankiewicz_l_mn_sprawl_pop.htm >.

18. “Weighing Sprawl Factor in Large U.S. Cities”, Leon Kolankiewicz and Roy Beck. NumbersUSA.com. March 19, 2001;
– “Outsmarting Smart Growth: Population Growth, Immigration, and the Problem of Sprawl”, Roy Beck, Leon Kolankiewicz, and Steven A. Camarota. Center For Immigration Studies, Washington, D.C. August 2003. See at < http://www.cis.org/articles/2003/sprawl.html >;
– More information at < www.sprawlcity.org/ >.

19. “Beyond Sprawl: The cost of population growth to local communities”, Carrying Capacity Network. 1998. See at < http://www.carryingcapacity.org/ >.

20. “The New Renaissance”, Daniel Quinn. Address Delivered to the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. March 7, 2002.
21. “U.S. natgas suppliers seen facing tough challenge”, Andrew Kelly. Reuters, April 25, 2000;
– Also see the U.S. Energy Information Administration and the National Petroleum Council.

22. “Land, Energy and Water: The Constraints Governing Ideal U.S. Population Size”, David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel; 1990.Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Note Table 3. Third in a series of NPG Forum papers exploring the idea of an optimum population. Taken together the papers constitute a cross-disciplinary study of carrying capacity in relation to many variables. The Optimum Population Series is available from Negative Population Growth, Inc., 210 The Plaza, P.O. Box 1206, Teaneck, NJ 07666-1206. See at < http://dieoff.com/page136.htm >.

23. “Smartest growth for burgeoning Twin Cities would be no growth at all”, Lawrence A. Winans, The (St. Paul) Pioneer Press, May 29, 2000.
_____
Used with permission of Dell Erickson
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