Minnesotans For Sustainability©

 

Sustainable:  A society that balances the environment, other life forms, and human interactions over an indefinite time period.

 

 

 

U.S. Population Growth and Mass Immigration

Joseph L. Daleiden*
1999

Part 3 of 3 -Notes

 

Part 1 of 3:
U.S. Population Growth is the Highest Among Developed Nations
    Figure 4.1: U.S. Bureau of Census Projections
    Figure 4.2: Comparison of Population Growth in the U.S. and Mexico,1930 to 2000
    Figure 4.3: Legal and Illegal Immigrants, 1950‑1997
Congress Makes a Bad Situation Worse
    Figure 4.4: Our Immigration Tradition
    Table: U.S. Births Per 1,000 Women, 1996
The Economic and Social Consequences of Current Immigration Policies
    Reduced Job Opportunities and Depressed Wage Rates
        Table: Percentage Change in Population for Selected Age
    Immigration Hits Blacks the Hardest
    Recent Immigrants are also Hurt by the Excessive Rate of Present Immigration
    Tight Labor Markets are Key to Reducing Poverty and Increasing Income Equality
    Higher Health and Education Costs
    Increased Crime and Racial Backlash
    Accelerating Environmental Destruction
    The Balkanization of America

Part 2 of 3
An Alternative to Immigration to Help the World's Poor
Controlling Immigration: What Must be Done
Steps to Reduce Immigration to Sustainable Levels
   
1. Determine the Long‑term Population Goal for the United States that Is
        Commensurate with Environmental Sustainability
    2. Determine Immigration Quotas Based upon Long‑term Population Goals
    3. Eliminate the Employer Skill‑based Set‑asides for Immigration
    4. End Chain Migration by Granting Preference Only to Underage, Unmarried Children,
        and Spouses of Legal Immigrants
    5. Establish an Employment Eligibility Verification System
    6. End Affirmative Action for Immigrants
    7. Eliminate All Benefits to Illegal Immigrants Except Emergency Medical Treatment
    8. Eliminate Automatic Citizenship for Children of Illegals
    9. Increase INS Funding and Border Patrol Policing
    10. Strengthen Border Patrols with the Use of the Armed Forces if Necessary
    11. Deny Federal and State Funds to Municipalities that Refuse to Cooperate with the
        INS
    12. Establish Refugee Centers within Warring Nations or Their Neighboring States Under
        the UN High Commissioner on Refugees
    13. Sharply Delimit Who Qualifies as a Political Refugee
    14. Return Refugees to Their Home Country after the End of Hostilities
    15. Increase Aid for Family Planning to All Countries Seeking to Control Their Birth Rates

Reducing U.S. Fertility Rates
    Table: Unwanted Births, 1995
Stabilizing the U.S. Population
   
1. Educating Women
    2. Improving Job Opportunities for Women
    3. Denying Children the Right to Raise Children
    4. Eliminating Tax Deductions for a Third Child
    5. Encouraging Women Not to Have Children
    6. If All Else Fails, Explore the Concept of Licenses to Bear Children

Summary

 Notes

1. Gregory Spencer, Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and Race: 1988‑2080, Series P‑25, No. 1018 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. De­partment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, January 1989), table F, p. 7.
2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1998 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996), table 3, p. 9.
3. Ibid., Table 3, p. 9, High Series. The High Series assumes that fertility rates will increase from 2.05 in 1998 to 2.58. Since immigrants tend to have fertility rates over 3.0, the 2.58 is entirely possible. The High Series also assumes net immigration will rise to 1,370,000. Given estimates of outmigration of about 250,000, this means immigration would have to increase to 1,620,000 a year. Studies in Portugal, Greece, and Italy have shown that illegal immigration is in part a function of how many legal immigrants there are because legal immigrants frequently provide the means for illegals to enter a country and obtain jobs. Given present trends, the most realistic projection would be somewhere between the Middle and High Series.
4. Dennis A. Ahlburg and J. W Vaupel, "Alternative Projections of the U.S. Population," Demographics 27 (December 1990): 648.
5. Data Supplied by Federation of Americans for Immigration Reform.
6. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, "Estimation of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States, October 1996," Backgrounder (January 1997): p. 1.
7. Wayne Lutton and John Tanton, The Immigration Invasion (Petoskey, Michigan: The Social Contract Press, 1994), p. 33.
8. Wall Street Journal, November 2, 1994, p. A6.
9. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 125.
10. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997, Table 94, p. 77.
11. Brad Edmondson, "The Boomlet's Still Booming," American Demographics (June 1991): p. 8.
12. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997, table 94, p. 77.
13. Robert W Fox, "Neighbor's Problem, Our Problems: Population Growth in Central America," NPG Forum (June 1990).
14. Chicago Tribune, June 11, 1995, sec. 1, p. 10.
15. "State of World Population Report," World Population News Service, Popline (July/August 1993).
16. John H. Tartan, M.D., "End of Migration Era," NPG Newsletter 18, no. 1 (Fall 1992): 8.
17. Lawrence Auster, The Path to National Suicide (Monterey, Va.: The American Immigration Control Foundation, 1990).
18. Eugene McCarthy, A Colony of the World (New York: Hippocreene Books, 1992), pp. 63‑73.
19. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1991, table 635, p. 386.
20. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress, February 1991 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991), table B‑34, p. 325.
21. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress, February 1997, table 47, p. 336.
22. During the period from 1940 to 1960, two million low‑income, largely unskilled blacks moved from the South to the North in search of good paying manufacturing jobs. But between 1970 and 1977, 2.4 million skilled whites moved from the Northeast to the Southwest reflecting the growth in manufacturing jobs there, especially due to the growth in defense and aerospace industries.
23. Roy Beck, The Case Against Immigration (New York: W W Norton and Company, 1996), p. 15.
24. Donald L. Huddle, "Immigration and Jobs: the Process of Displacement," NPG Forum (May 1992): 4.
25. Julian Simon, The Economic Consequences of Immigration (Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1991) pp. 230‑32.
26. George Borjas, "Know the Flow," National Review (April 17, 1995): 49. See also, "Economic Benefits from Immigration," Working Paper No. 4955, National Bureau of Economic Reset (December 1994).
27. Peter H. Lindhert, Fertility and Scarcity in America (Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 233‑34. Jeffrey Williamson, "Kuznets Memorial Lecture," Harvard, 1991, cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, pp. 86‑87.
28. See for example:
• Joseph G. Alonji and David Card, "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Less Skilled Natives," Immigration, Trade and Labor, eds. John M. Abowd and Richard Freeman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
• Kristian F. Butcher and David Card, "Immigration and Wages: Evidence from the 1980s," The American Economic Review, 81, no. 2 (May 1981): 292‑96.
• Thomas Muller and Thomas Espanshade, The Fourth Wave: California's Newest Immigrants (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1995).
• George J. Borjas, "The Impact of Immigrants on the Earnings of the Native‑Born," Immigration: Issues and Policies, eds. W M. Briggs and M. Trieda (Salt Lake City: Olympus Press, 1984).
• George J. Borjas, Friend or Strangers: The Impact Immigrants on the U.S. Economy (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1990).29. Rander K. Filer, "The Effects of Immigrants arrivals on Migratory Patterns of Native Workers," Immigration and the Work Force, eds. George Borjas and Richard Freeman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). Also, William H. Frey and Liaw Kao‑Lee, The Immigration Impact on Population Redistribution within the United States, Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan, Research Report Series (December 1996), no. 96‑376.
30. George Borjas, Richard B. Freeman, and Lawrence F. Katz, "On the Labor Market effects of Immigration and Trade," Immigration and the Work Force (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
31. Steven A. Camarota and Mark Krikorian, "The Impact of Immigration on the U.S. Labor Market" (Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 1997).
32. A few of the studies supporting the hypothesis that immigration displaces American jobs and reduces wage rates:
•       Earnings of low skilled natives decline 12 percent for a 10 percent increase in immigrants in an SMSA. Joseph G. Altonji and David Card, "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Less‑skilled Natives." Cited by Donald L. Huddle, "Immigration, Jobs and Wages: The Misuses of Econometrics," NPG Forum (April 1992): 3.
•       Cities with more immigrants have higher unemployment. David North in U.S. Congressional Record, Senate (S 19523‑S 19525) December 20, 1979.
•       Immigration results in 10 to 20 percent displacement of native workers, i.e., one million immigrants results in a loss of 100,000 to 200,000 American jobs. Harry E. Cross and James A. Sandos, Across the Border: Rural Development in Mexico and Recent Migration to the
United States (LaJolla, Calif.: Institute of Government Studies, University of California, 1982), p. 85.
•       Influx of illegal workers result in lower wages and poorer working conditions in south Texas. Vernon Briggs Jr., "Mexican Migration and U.S. Labor Market" (Austin: Center for the study of Human Resources and the Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas, 1975), pp. 25‑30.
•       Illegal alien workers probably displace native workers. U.S. General Accounting Office, "Illegal Aliens: Limited Research Suggests that Illegal Aliens May Displace Native Workers" (Washington, D.C.: Government Accounting Office, April 1986), p. 35. Note that this conclusion ignores the potential impacts of the much larger number of legal aliens.
•       Wage rate growth is slower in New York than cities with fewer number of immigrants. Adrianna Marshall, "Immigration in a Surplus Worker Labor Market: The Case of New York," New York University, Research Program in Inter‑American Affairs, 1983.
•       A study of five high‑immigration cites (Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Miami, and San Antonio) compared to five low‑immigration cities (Birmingham, Dayton, Memphis, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh) indicates that wage changes in high‑immigration cities were 20 percent lower than the national average and wage changes in low‑immigration cities were 18 percent higher than the U.S. average despite there being no difference in the cities' relative productivity (Walker, Ellis, and Barff, in Economic Geography).
U.S. Population Growth and Mass Immigration 173
•       Lutton and Tanton conclude that "Vast pools of cheap immigrant labor have driven down wage rates in the New York metropolitan area. Jobs that once paid a salary that allowed an individual to support a family no longer do so" The Immigration Invasion, p. 27.
•       Robert M. Solow of MIT received a Nobel prize for his economic model that explained why population growth impoverished a country. Solow showed that since 1965 the increase in immigration was pushing the United States into the fast‑growing population trends of the Third World (Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 79).
33. Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G. Williamson, "International Migration 1850‑1939: An Economic Survey," in Migration and the International Labor Market 1850‑1939, ed. Hatton and Williamson (New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 19. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 25.
34. U.S. General Accounting Office, "Janitors in the Los Angeles Area," GAO/PEMD‑88‑13BR, March 1988, pp. 40‑41. Reprinted in the Social Contract (Summer 1995): 258.
35. Vernon Briggs Jr., Mass Immigration and the National Interest (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1992), pp. 214‑215.
36. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 181.
37. Ibid, p. 187.
38. Joleen Kirschenman and Katherine Neckerman, "We'd Love to Hire Them But: The Meaning of Race for Employers," in The Urban Underclass, eds. C. Jenks and P. Peterson (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1991); Katherine Neckerman and Joleen Kirchman, "Hiring Strategies, Racial Bias and Inner City Workers," Social Problems 38 (1990): 433‑47. Cited by James H. Johnson Jr., and Walter C. Farwell Jr., "Growing Income Inequality in American Society: A Polit­ical Economy Perspective," in The Inequality Paradox: Growth of Income Disparity, eds. James A. Auerbach and Richard S. Belous (Washington, D.C.: National Policy Association Report, #288, 1998), p. 141.
39. Center for Immigration Studies, "The Cost of Immigration: Assessing a Conflicted Issue," no. 2‑94 (September 1994): 16.
40. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 126.
41. Jonathan Kaufman, "Immigrants' Businesses Often Refuse to Hire Blacks in Inner City," Wall Street Journal, June 6, 1995, p. A1.
42. Ibid., p. A9.
43. Ibid., p. A1.
44. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 194.
45. Kaufman, "Immigrants' Businesses Often Refuse to Hire Blacks in Inner City," p. A9.
46. Ibid., p. A9.
47. Rochelle Sharpe, "Asian‑American Gain Sharply in Big Program of Affirmative Action," Wall Street Journal, September 9,
48. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 171.
49. Ibid., p. 157.
50. Joseph L. Daleiden, Frank Latin, and Rai Pakkala. "Hispanic Gain 1997, pp. A1, A8. Employment at Expense of Blacks," Midwest Coalition to Reform Immigration, Working Paper 1.1, 1997.
51. Booker T. Washington, "Cast Down Your Bucket Where You Are," speech delivered to the Atlantic Cotton States and International Exposition (September 18, 1895). Reprinted in The Social Contract (Summer 1995): 242‑44.
52. Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (New York: Dover, Black Rediscovery Series, 1969) pp. 454‑55.
53. Frederick Rose, "Latest Immigrants Face Tough Job Problems," Wall Street Journal, November, 28, 1994, p. A‑1.
54. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 27.
55. Beck, The Care Against Immigration, p. 122.
56. Vincent J. Schodolski, "Farm Workers Earn Less Than in '76, Data Shows,"
Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1997, sec. 1, p. 12.
57. New York Times, March 31, 1997, p. 1.
58. Beck, The Care Against Immigration, p. 121.
59. U.S. General Accounting Office, "Illegal Aliens and Illegal Workers and Working Conditions of Legal Workers" (Washington, D.C.: Government Accounting Office, 1988), pp. 38‑39. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 63.
60. Carey Goldberg, "Hispanic Households Struggle as Poorest of Poor in U.S.," New York Times, January 30, 1997.
61. Ibid.
62. Center for Immigration Studies, "Foreign‑Born Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians in the United States," Washington, D.C., 1996.
63. Carol Jouzaitis, "Glut of Doctors, Nurses Predicted by Commission," Chicago Tribune, November 17, 1995, sec. 1, p. 20.
64. Norman Matloff, "A Critical Look at Immigration's Role in the U.S. Computer Industry" University of California at Davis (August 25, 1995): 6.
65. CBS News, "Slamming the Door," 48 Hours, May 11, 1995.
66. Richard Lamb, "Immigration: The Shifting Paradigm," The Social Contract (Fall 1994): 55.
67. Richard B. Freeman, "Employment and Earnings of Disadvantaged Young Men in a Labor Shortage Economy," in The Urban Underclass, eds. Christopher Jenks and Paul E. Peterson (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1991), pp. 110, 119.
68. Chicago Tribune, July 13, 1993, sec. 1, p. 13
69. Fair Immigration Report (June 1993): 1.
70. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 128.
71. Ibid., p. 11.
72. Donald L. Huddle, "The Net National Cost of Immigration in 1993," updated June 27, 1994. Methodology, notes, and exhibits, National Exhibit 3.
73. Harold Galleon, "Bursting at the Seams," The Social Contract (Summer 1993): 263.
74. Roy Beck, "More Confirmation of Immigrant Problems, But Symptoms, Not Source, Get Attention," The Social Contract (Summer, 1993): 279.
75. Leon F. Bouvier and Rosemary Jenks, Shaping Illinois: The Effects of Immigration: 1970‑2020 (Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 1996).
76. California Department of Education, "California Schools Busting at the Seams," September 3, 1991. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 210.
77. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 20.
78. Garrett Hardin, Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 285.
79. McCarthy, A Colony of the World, p. 109.
80 Linda Chavez, Commentary (September 1998): 12‑130.
81. Linda Chavez, "The Failure of Bilingual Education," Chicago Tribune, July 30, 1997, sec. 1, p. 11.
82. The lower estimate came from the Census Bureau which has consistently underestimated the growth in the Spanish‑speaking population. The higher estimate came form Carlos Fuentes, The Futurist (January/February 1993): 48‑49.
83. Georgie Anne Geyer, "America Into Splinters," The Social Contract (Summer 1993): 247.
84. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 61.
85. Ibid.
86. Ibid.
87. Ibid., p. 64.
88. McCarthy, A Colony of the World, p. 64.
89. Editorial, "Crossing the Border of Acceptability," Chicago Tribune, April 28, 1997, sec. 1, p. 12.
90. Special Report, "Global Mafia," Newsweek (December 13. 1993). 
91. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 77.
92. William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged, The Inner City, the Underclass, and Poverty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 36, 180.
93. The Federation for American Immigration Reform, A Tale of Ten Cites (Washington, D.C.: The Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1995), pp. xvii‑xix.
94. For example, Donald Mann argues that the optimal population for the United States would be as low as 125 to 150 million. "Why We Need Smaller U.S. Population and How We Can Achieve It," NPG Forum (July 1992).
95. Jon Van, "Population Nearing Limit, Some Warn," Chicago Tribune, February 20, 1995, sec. 1, p. 3.
96. Meredith Berke, "An Environmental Income Statement for Immigration," The Social Contract (Summer 1993): 266.
97. Lindsey Grant, "Waiting for Al," NPG Forum (February 1995): 3.
98. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 235.
99. Ibid., p. 235.
100. Lawrence Auster, The Path to National Suicide: An Essay on Immigration and Multiculturalism (Monterey, Va.: The American Immigration Control Foundation, 1990), pp. 60‑61.
101. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multiculture Society (Whittle Direct Books, 1991).
102. Stanley Lieberson, A Piece of the Pie: Black and White Immigrants Since 1880 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980): pp. 368‑69. Cited by Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, The Underclass, and Poverty, p. 33.
103. Southern Poverty Law Center, Klanwatch (April 1993): 1.
104. Southern Poverty Law Center, Intelligence Report 74 (August 1974): 1.
105. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 49.
106. Santa Barbara News Press, October 22, 1995.
107. Dr. Jose Angel Gutierrez, speech given in conference entitled: "The Immigration Crisis, Proposition 187: A Post Election Policy Analysis on its Implications," sponsored by Ernesto Galarza Public Policy and Humanities Research Institute, University of California, January 13‑14, 1995.
108. Leon Bouvier, Old Dominion University, unpublished estimates. Cited by Lawrence Auster, The Path to National Suicide (Monterey, Va.: The American Immigration Control Foundation, 1990), p. 24.
109. Latino immigrants average about 91 on IQ tests. Whether this reflects bias on the part of IQ tests has long been a subject of debate. Other immigrant groups have been able to improve their IQ scores over time. However, given the increasing correlation between IQ and economic attainment, it is a cause of concern. See Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (New York: Free Press, 1994) pp. 359‑360.
110. Michael Lind, The Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 14. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 223.
111. Lawrence Harrison, "We Don't Cause Latin American Troubles ‑Latin Culture Does," Washington Post, June 29, 1986. Cited by Auster, Path to National Suicide, p. 44.
112. National Catholic Register (November 8, 1992). Quoted by Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 144.
113. Donald L. Huddle, "The Net Costs of Immigration: The Facts, The Trends and The Critics," released by the Carrying Capacity Network (October 22, 1996).
114. Jeffrey S. Passel and Rebecca L. Clark, "How Much Do Immigrants Really Cost? A Reappraisal of Huddle's `The Cost of Immigrants,' " The Urban Institute (February 1994): 1. See also, Jeffrey S. Passel, "Immigrants and Taxes: A Reappraisal of Huddle's `The Cost of Immigrants,"' The Urban Institute (January, 1994): PRIP‑UI‑29.
115. National Research Council, The New Americans: Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997).
116. An analysis by Steven Camarota of the Center for Immigration Studies examines just the incremental impact of immigration based upon the NCR analysis, i.e., he ignores the potential lost wage increases due to immigration. Based upon his analysis, he poses the ethical question: "Is it right to make the poorest 10 percent of the population 5 percent poorer so that the rest of society can be made two tenths of one percent richer?" See "Immigration's Effects on Jobs and Wages," Immigration Review (Summer 1997): 1‑5.
117. Lief Jensen, International Immigration Review (Spring 1988). Cited by Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 9.
118. GAO/HEHS‑95‑58 (February 1995). It was not only Hispanics who were receiving welfare benefits prior to 1996. Twenty‑nine percent of the Vietnamese immigrants were on welfare and 55 percent of Chinese senior citizens who came into the United States since 1980 were on welfare. Many were quite well off but have discovered that by transferring their assets to their children they could claim welfare benefits, such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicare. In fact, the fastest growing component of the budget until welfare reform was SSI. In 1994, nearly 738,000 noncitizen residents received SSI, up from only 127,000 in 1982; that's a 580 percent increase in only twelve years. By 1995, SSI and Medicaid to nonresidents was costing Americans $12 billion a year and was projected to rise to $67 billion by the year 2004. (Robert Rector, "A Retirement Home for Immigrants," Intellectual Ammunition, The Heartland Institute (May/June 1995)). It was hoped that the 1996 welfare reform would significantly cut that projection, but given the backpedaling of Congress, it is now questionable whether we can curb the growth of SSI significantly.
119. Herrnstein and Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, pp. 359‑364.
120. Ibid., p. 360. Although the mean IQ scores of native born Latinos are seven points higher than immigrant Latinos, they are still well below Asian and European immigrants, and almost one standard deviation below the overall national native born mean (i.e., their average score places them at the 84th percentile).
121. Garrett Hardin, "There Is No Global Population Problem," The Humanist (July/August 1989).
122. Leon Bouvier, What If... ? Immigration Decisions: What Could Have Been, What Could Be (Federation of American Immigration Reform, October 1994), p. 3.
123. Gregory Spenser, "Demographic Implications of an Aging United States Population Structure During the 1990 to 2030 Period," Futures Research Quarterly (Fall 1990): 26.
124. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 153.
125. Robert Versola, "The West Is the Real Pirate," World Press Review (October 1992): 52.
126. Peter Skerry, "Hispanic Job Discrimination Exaggerated," Wall Street Journal, April 27, 1990.
127. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 115.
128. Vernon Briggs Jr., "Income Disparity and Unionism: The Workplace Influences of Post 1965 Immigration Policy," The Inequality Paradox: Growth of Income Disparity, eds. James A. Auerbach and Richard S. Belous (Washington, D.C.: National Policy Association Report, #288, 1998), p. 112.
129. San Francisco Chronicle, July 6, 1992.
130. Christian Science Monitor, December 27, 1991. Cited by Lutton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 43.
131. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 189.
132. "Bellboys with B.A.s," Time, November 22, 1993, p. 36.
133. Malcolm W Brown, "Job Outlook Gloomy for Some Ph.D.s," Dallas Morning News, July 30, 1995. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 147.
134. Federation for Immigration Reform, Immigration Report, May 1994, pp. 1, 4.
135. "Audit Says Visa Program Hurts U.S. Workers," Chicago Tribune, April 16, 1996, sec. 1, p. 10.
136. David C. Korton, When Corporations Rule the World (West Hartford, Conn., and San Francisco: Kumarian Press and Berrett‑Koehler Publishers, Inc., 1995), pp. 62‑63.
137. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, pp. 130‑31.
138. New York Times, March 1, 1992. Cited by Federation for Immigration Reform, Immigration Report (April 1992).
139. Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1995, sec. 2, p. 1.
140. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 111ff.
141. For a chilling description of how a peaceful town can suddenly be beset with problems usually associated with the inner city, see Beck, The Case Against Immigration, Chapter 6.
142. Kaufman, "Help Unwanted," p. Al.
143. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 54.
144. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 123.
145. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 52.
146. Florian Moran, "Study of Immigrants Arriving in Chicago Between 1992 and 1995," Unpublished Monograph, 1996.
147. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 52.
148. A federal judge ruled that Chinese immigrants should be allowed asylum because of Chinese abortion and sterilization policies. Chicago Tribune, August 8, 1994, sec. 1, p. 16. See also Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 130.
149. Ray Moseley, "Briton Retools Immigration Laws," Chicago Tribune, January 21, 1996.
150. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 53.
151. Federation of American Immigration Reform, "What to Do about Refugees?" Issue Brief (March 1993).
152. Carole Douglis, "Images of Home," Wilderness (Fall 1993): 12.
153. Robert Costanza, "Balancing Humans in the Biosphere‑Escaping the Overpopulation Trap," NPG Forum (July 1990).
154. Paul Klugman, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W W Norton and Company, 1994), pp. 227‑28.
155. Roy Beck, "Immigration by the Numbers," videotape (Petoskey, Mich.: The Social Contract Press, 1996).
156. E. O. Wilson, Consilience (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), p. 282.
157. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress, February 1998, table B‑47, p. 336.
158. Garrett Hardin, "There Is No Global Population Problem," The Humanist (July/August 1989). See also, Don Feddler, "Granddad and the New Tribe," The Social Contract (Summer 1993): 287.
159. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, Report of the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972).
160. Select Commission on Immigration Policy and the National Interest (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981).
161. U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, Legal Immigration: Setting Priorities (June 1995).
162. Harold Galleon, "Bursting at the Seams," The Social Contract (Summer 1993): 265.
163. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 16.
164. Ibid., pp. 243‑49.
165. Ibid., p. 112.
166. Karen Brandon, "Citizenship a Hot Immigration Issue," Chicago Tribune, August 24, 1997, sec. 1, p.3.
167. Georgie Anne Geyer, "Europe Is Seeking New Commitments from Its Immigrants,"
Chicago Tribune, September 2, 1994, sec. 1, p. 21.
168. The Congressional Globe, "The Debates and Proceedings of the First Session of the Thirty‑Ninth Congress," City of Washington, Congressional Globe Office, 1866. The Congressional Globe was the forerunner of the Congressional Record.
169. Chicago Tribune, August 31, 1997, sec. 1, p. 3.
170. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 53. Beck quotes Roger Winter, director of the nonprofit U.S. Committee for Refugees.
171. U.S. Department of justice, 1996 Statistical Yearbook of the Naturalization and Immigration Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997), table 27, p. 87.
172. Lindsey Grant, "Free Trade and Cheap Labor: The President's Dilemma," p. 4.
173. Hardin, Living Within Limits, p. 276. The plaque encouraging the world to send us "your huddled masses yearning to be free," was added much later by a group of private citizens and never authorized or endorsed by the United States Congress. It was a noble‑sounding sentiment, but in a world were the huddled masses number in the billions, it is pragmatically impossible.
174. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1996, table 3, p. 9, Lowest Series. Because of today's age distribution, the population would peak at about 291,000 in the year 2030 before declining slightly.
175. Ibid., tables 93 and 94, p. 77.
176. Calculated by author from Statistical Abstract, 1998, table 117, p. 89.
177. ZPG Reporter (August 1990): 3. See also The Economist (March 23, 1990): 30.
178. According to the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, there were 17,077 unintended births in 1995, of which 19.6 percent were unwanted. Statistical Abstract, 1998, table 117, p. 89.
179. ZPG Reporter (December 1990): 7.
180. ZPG Reporter (December 1988): 2.
181. Lester R. Brown and Kathleen Newland, Abortion Liberalization: A Worldwide Trend (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1976). Cited by Brown, Building A Sustainable Society, p. 154.
182. J. A. Sweet and R. R. Rindfuss, "Those Ubiquitous Fertility Trends: United States, 1945‑1979," Social Biology 30 (1983): 127‑139. Cited by Herrnstein and Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, p. 349.
183. Herrnstein and Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, pp. 343‑356.
184. Charles Murray, Losing Ground (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 19.
185. For a complete discussion of the distinction between human life and personhood and its relevance to the issue of abortion, see Joseph L. Daleiden, The Science of Morality, chapter 15.
186. James W Prescott, "The Abortion of the Silent Scream," The Humanist (September/October 1986): 10.
187. Ibid.
188. "No Relief in Sight," ZPG Reporter (February 1991): 3.
189. For example, David Pimentel, entomology professor at Cornell University, estimates 200 million for the United States and 2 billion for the world. (Social Contract [Summer 1993]: 286). The organization Negative Population Growth reports on a number of studies that would confirm their own recommended range of between 100 and 150 million people. (Human Survival 17, no. 1 [Spring 1991 ]: 1).
190. Anseley Coale, "The Demographic Transition," Proceedings of the International Population Conference, Liege, vol. 1, pp. 53‑72. Quoted by John R. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," NPG Forum (September 1990).
191. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," p. 3.
192. Chicago Tribune, September 22, 1991.
193. Gary S. Becker, A Treatise on Family (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991), p. 15.
194. Donald Mann, "Why We Need Smaller U.S. Population and How to Achieve It," NPG Forum (July 1992).
195. Hardin, Living Within Limits, p. 272.
196. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," p.3. Weeks also mentions several other methods for undeveloped countries such as improved community infrastructure where community goals are met, or educational placement for first or second children but not higher‑order births. For obvious reasons such incentives would not be appropriate or workable in this country.
197. Herman E. Daly, Toward a Steady State Economy (San Francisco: W H. Freeman and Company, 1973), p. 158.
198. Bryce, The
American Commonwealth, cited by Arthur M. Schlesinger in The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multiculture Society, p. 7.
______
Used with permission of the author.
* This essay is from Chapter 4, Daleiden, Joseph L., 1999, The American Dream: Can it survive the 21st Century?, Prometheus Books, New York. p170-180.

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