U.S. Population Growth and Mass Immigration
Joseph L. Daleiden*
Part 3 of 3 -Notes
Part 1 of 3:
Population Growth is the Highest Among Developed Nations
Figure 4.1: U.S. Bureau of Census Projections
Figure 4.2: Comparison of Population Growth in the U.S. and
Mexico,1930 to 2000
Figure 4.3: Legal and Illegal Immigrants, 1950‑1997
Congress Makes a Bad Situation Worse
Figure 4.4: Our Immigration Tradition
Table: U.S. Births Per 1,000 Women, 1996
The Economic and Social Consequences of Current Immigration Policies
Reduced Job Opportunities and Depressed Wage Rates
Table: Percentage Change in Population for Selected Age
Immigration Hits Blacks the Hardest
Recent Immigrants are also Hurt by the Excessive Rate of
Tight Labor Markets are Key to Reducing Poverty and
Increasing Income Equality
Higher Health and Education Costs
Increased Crime and Racial Backlash
Accelerating Environmental Destruction
The Balkanization of America
2 of 3
An Alternative to Immigration to Help the World's Poor
Controlling Immigration: What Must be Done
Steps to Reduce Immigration to Sustainable Levels
1. Determine the Long‑term
Population Goal for the United States that Is
Commensurate with Environmental
2. Determine Immigration Quotas Based upon Long‑term
3. Eliminate the Employer Skill‑based Set‑asides for
4. End Chain Migration by Granting Preference Only to
Underage, Unmarried Children,
and Spouses of Legal Immigrants
5. Establish an Employment Eligibility Verification System
6. End Affirmative Action for Immigrants
7. Eliminate All Benefits to Illegal Immigrants Except
Emergency Medical Treatment
8. Eliminate Automatic Citizenship for Children of Illegals
9. Increase INS Funding and Border Patrol Policing
10. Strengthen Border Patrols with the Use of the Armed
Forces if Necessary
11. Deny Federal and State Funds to Municipalities that
Refuse to Cooperate with the
12. Establish Refugee Centers within Warring Nations or
Their Neighboring States Under
the UN High Commissioner on Refugees
13. Sharply Delimit Who Qualifies as a Political Refugee
14. Return Refugees to Their Home Country after the End of
15. Increase Aid for Family Planning to All Countries
Seeking to Control Their Birth Rates
Reducing U.S. Fertility
Table: Unwanted Births, 1995
Stabilizing the U.S. Population
1. Educating Women
2. Improving Job Opportunities for Women
3. Denying Children the Right to Raise Children
4. Eliminating Tax Deductions for a Third Child
5. Encouraging Women Not to Have Children
6. If All Else Fails, Explore the Concept of Licenses to Bear
Spencer, Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and
Race: 1988‑2080, Series P‑25, No. 1018 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, January 1989), table F, p. 7.
2. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1998
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996), table 3, p. 9.
3. Ibid., Table 3, p. 9, High Series. The High Series assumes that fertility
rates will increase from 2.05 in 1998 to 2.58. Since immigrants tend to have
fertility rates over 3.0, the 2.58 is entirely possible. The High Series also
assumes net immigration will rise to 1,370,000. Given estimates of outmigration
of about 250,000, this means immigration would have to increase to 1,620,000 a
year. Studies in Portugal,
Greece, and Italy have shown that illegal immigration is in part a function of
how many legal immigrants there are because legal immigrants frequently provide
the means for illegals to enter a country and obtain jobs. Given present trends,
the most realistic projection would be somewhere between the Middle and High
4. Dennis A. Ahlburg and J. W Vaupel, "Alternative Projections of the U.S.
Population," Demographics 27 (December 1990): 648.
5. Data Supplied by Federation of Americans for Immigration Reform.
6. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, "Estimation of the Unauthorized
Immigrant Population Residing in the United States, October 1996,"
Backgrounder (January 1997): p. 1.
7. Wayne Lutton and John Tanton, The Immigration Invasion (Petoskey,
Michigan: The Social Contract Press, 1994), p. 33.
8. Wall Street Journal, November 2, 1994, p. A6.
9. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 125.
Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997,
Table 94, p. 77.
11. Brad Edmondson, "The Boomlet's Still Booming," American Demographics (June
1991): p. 8.
12. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States,
1997, table 94, p. 77.
13. Robert W Fox, "Neighbor's Problem, Our Problems: Population Growth in
Central America," NPG Forum (June 1990).
14. Chicago Tribune, June 11, 1995, sec. 1, p. 10.
15. "State of World
Population Report," World Population News Service, Popline (July/August
16. John H. Tartan, M.D., "End of Migration Era," NPG Newsletter 18, no.
1 (Fall 1992): 8.
17. Lawrence Auster, The Path to National Suicide (Monterey, Va.: The
American Immigration Control Foundation, 1990).
18. Eugene McCarthy, A Colony of the World (New York: Hippocreene Books,
1992), pp. 63‑73.
19. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States,
1991, table 635, p. 386.
20. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress,
February 1991 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991), table
B‑34, p. 325.
21. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress,
February 1997, table 47, p. 336.
22. During the period from 1940 to 1960, two million low‑income, largely
unskilled blacks moved from the South to the North in search of good paying
manufacturing jobs. But between 1970 and 1977, 2.4 million skilled whites moved
from the Northeast to the Southwest reflecting the growth in manufacturing jobs
there, especially due to the growth in defense and aerospace industries.
23. Roy Beck, The Case Against Immigration (New York: W W Norton and
Company, 1996), p. 15.
24. Donald L. Huddle, "Immigration and Jobs: the Process of Displacement," NPG
Forum (May 1992): 4.
25. Julian Simon, The Economic Consequences of Immigration (Cambridge,
Mass.: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1991) pp. 230‑32.
26. George Borjas, "Know the Flow," National Review (April 17, 1995): 49.
See also, "Economic Benefits from Immigration," Working Paper No. 4955, National
Bureau of Economic Reset (December 1994).
27. Peter H. Lindhert, Fertility and Scarcity in America (Princeton, NJ.:
Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 233‑34. Jeffrey Williamson, "Kuznets
Memorial Lecture," Harvard, 1991, cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration,
28. See for example:
• Joseph G. Alonji and David Card, "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor
Market Outcomes of Less Skilled Natives," Immigration, Trade and Labor,
eds. John M. Abowd and Richard Freeman (Chicago: University of Chicago
• Kristian F. Butcher and David Card, "Immigration and Wages: Evidence from the
1980s," The American Economic Review, 81, no. 2 (May 1981): 292‑96.
• Thomas Muller and Thomas Espanshade, The Fourth Wave: California's Newest
Immigrants (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1995).
• George J. Borjas, "The Impact of Immigrants on the Earnings of the
Native‑Born," Immigration: Issues and Policies, eds. W M. Briggs and M.
Trieda (Salt Lake City: Olympus Press, 1984).
• George J. Borjas, Friend or Strangers: The Impact Immigrants on the U.S.
Economy (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1990).29. Rander K. Filer, "The Effects of Immigrants arrivals on Migratory Patterns
of Native Workers," Immigration and the Work Force, eds. George Borjas and
Richard Freeman (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). Also, William H.
Frey and Liaw Kao‑Lee, The Immigration Impact on Population Redistribution
within the United States, Population Studies Center at the University of
Michigan, Research Report Series (December 1996), no. 96‑376.
30. George Borjas, Richard B. Freeman, and Lawrence F. Katz, "On the Labor
Market effects of Immigration and Trade," Immigration and the Work Force
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
31. Steven A. Camarota and Mark Krikorian, "The Impact of Immigration on the
U.S. Labor Market" (Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 1997).
32. A few of the studies supporting the hypothesis that immigration displaces
American jobs and reduces wage rates:
• Earnings of low skilled natives decline 12 percent for a 10 percent
increase in immigrants in an SMSA. Joseph G. Altonji and David Card, "The
Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Less‑skilled Natives."
Cited by Donald L. Huddle, "Immigration, Jobs and Wages: The Misuses of
Econometrics," NPG Forum (April 1992): 3.
• Cities with more immigrants have higher
unemployment. David North in U.S. Congressional Record, Senate (S 19523‑S 19525) December 20, 1979.
• Immigration results in 10 to 20 percent displacement of native workers,
i.e., one million immigrants results in a loss of 100,000 to 200,000 American
jobs. Harry E. Cross and James A. Sandos, Across the Border: Rural Development
in Mexico and Recent Migration to the
(LaJolla, Calif.: Institute of Government Studies, University of California,
1982), p. 85.
• Influx of illegal workers result in lower wages and poorer working
conditions in south Texas. Vernon Briggs Jr., "Mexican Migration and U.S. Labor
Market" (Austin: Center for the study of Human Resources and the Bureau of
Business Research, University of Texas, 1975), pp. 25‑30.
• Illegal alien workers probably displace native workers. U.S. General
Accounting Office, "Illegal Aliens: Limited Research Suggests that Illegal
Aliens May Displace Native Workers" (Washington, D.C.: Government Accounting
Office, April 1986), p. 35. Note that this conclusion ignores the potential
impacts of the much larger number of legal aliens.
• Wage rate growth is slower in New York than cities with fewer number of
immigrants. Adrianna Marshall, "Immigration in a Surplus Worker Labor Market:
The Case of New York," New York University, Research Program in Inter‑American
• A study of five high‑immigration cites (Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
Miami, and San Antonio) compared to five low‑immigration cities (Birmingham,
Dayton, Memphis, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh) indicates that wage changes in
high‑immigration cities were 20 percent lower than the national average and wage
changes in low‑immigration cities were 18 percent higher than the U.S. average
despite there being no difference in the cities' relative productivity (Walker,
Ellis, and Barff, in Economic Geography).
Population Growth and Mass Immigration 173
• Lutton and Tanton conclude that "Vast pools of cheap immigrant labor
have driven down wage rates in the New York metropolitan area. Jobs that once
paid a salary that allowed an individual to support a family no longer do so"
The Immigration Invasion, p. 27.
• Robert M. Solow of MIT received a Nobel prize for his economic model
that explained why population growth impoverished a country. Solow showed that
since 1965 the increase in immigration was pushing the United States
into the fast‑growing population trends of the Third World
(Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 79).
33. Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G. Williamson, "International Migration
1850‑1939: An Economic Survey," in Migration and the International
1850‑1939, ed. Hatton and Williamson (New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 19. Cited
by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 25.
34. U.S. General Accounting Office, "Janitors in the Los Angeles Area," GAO/PEMD‑88‑13BR,
March 1988, pp. 40‑41. Reprinted in the Social Contract (Summer 1995): 258.
35. Vernon Briggs Jr., Mass Immigration and the National Interest (New York: M.
E. Sharpe, 1992), pp. 214‑215.
36. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 181.
37. Ibid, p. 187.
38. Joleen Kirschenman and Katherine Neckerman, "We'd Love to Hire Them But: The
Meaning of Race for Employers," in The Urban Underclass, eds. C. Jenks and P.
Peterson (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1991); Katherine Neckerman and
Joleen Kirchman, "Hiring Strategies, Racial Bias and Inner City Workers,"
Social Problems 38 (1990): 433‑47. Cited by James H. Johnson Jr., and Walter C. Farwell
Jr., "Growing Income Inequality in American Society: A Political Economy
Perspective," in The Inequality Paradox: Growth of Income Disparity, eds. James
A. Auerbach and Richard S. Belous (Washington, D.C.: National Policy Association
Report, #288, 1998), p. 141.
39. Center for
Immigration Studies, "The Cost of Immigration: Assessing a Conflicted Issue,"
no. 2‑94 (September 1994): 16.
40. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 126.
41. Jonathan Kaufman, "Immigrants' Businesses Often Refuse to Hire Blacks in
Inner City," Wall Street Journal, June 6, 1995, p. A1.
42. Ibid., p. A9.
43. Ibid., p. A1.
44. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 194.
45. Kaufman, "Immigrants' Businesses Often Refuse to Hire Blacks in Inner City,"
46. Ibid., p. A9.
47. Rochelle Sharpe, "Asian‑American Gain Sharply in Big Program of Affirmative
Action," Wall Street Journal, September 9,
48. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 171.
49. Ibid., p. 157.
50. Joseph L. Daleiden, Frank Latin, and Rai Pakkala. "Hispanic Gain 1997, pp.
A1, A8. Employment at Expense of Blacks," Midwest Coalition to Reform Immigration,
Working Paper 1.1, 1997.
Booker T. Washington, "Cast Down Your Bucket Where You Are," speech delivered to
Cotton States and International Exposition (September 18, 1895). Reprinted in
The Social Contract (Summer 1995): 242‑44.
52. Frederick Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (New York: Dover, Black
Rediscovery Series, 1969) pp. 454‑55.
53. Frederick Rose, "Latest Immigrants Face Tough Job Problems," Wall Street
Journal, November, 28, 1994, p. A‑1.
54. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 27.
55. Beck, The Care Against Immigration, p. 122.
56. Vincent J. Schodolski, "Farm Workers Earn Less Than in '76, Data Shows,"
Tribune, April 12, 1997, sec. 1, p. 12.
57. New York Times, March 31,
1997, p. 1.
58. Beck, The Care Against Immigration, p. 121.
General Accounting Office, "Illegal Aliens and Illegal Workers and Working
Conditions of Legal Workers" (Washington, D.C.: Government Accounting Office,
1988), pp. 38‑39. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 63.
60. Carey Goldberg, "Hispanic Households Struggle as Poorest of Poor in U.S.,"
New York Times, January 30, 1997.
62. Center for
Immigration Studies, "Foreign‑Born Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians in
the United States," Washington, D.C., 1996.
63. Carol Jouzaitis, "Glut of Doctors, Nurses Predicted by Commission,"
Tribune, November 17, 1995, sec. 1, p. 20.
64. Norman Matloff, "A Critical Look at Immigration's Role in the U.S. Computer
Industry" University of California at Davis (August 25, 1995): 6.
65. CBS News, "Slamming the Door," 48 Hours, May 11, 1995.
66. Richard Lamb, "Immigration: The Shifting Paradigm," The Social Contract
(Fall 1994): 55.
67. Richard B. Freeman, "Employment and Earnings of Disadvantaged Young Men in a
Labor Shortage Economy," in The Urban Underclass, eds. Christopher Jenks and
Paul E. Peterson (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1991), pp. 110,
68. Chicago Tribune, July 13, 1993, sec. 1, p. 13
69. Fair Immigration Report (June 1993): 1.
70. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 128.
71. Ibid., p. 11.
72. Donald L. Huddle, "The Net National Cost of Immigration in 1993," updated June 27, 1994.
Methodology, notes, and exhibits, National Exhibit 3.
73. Harold Galleon, "Bursting at the Seams," The Social Contract (Summer 1993):
74. Roy Beck, "More Confirmation of Immigrant Problems, But Symptoms, Not
Source, Get Attention," The Social Contract (Summer, 1993): 279.
75. Leon F. Bouvier and Rosemary Jenks, Shaping Illinois: The Effects of
Immigration: 1970‑2020 (Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies, 1996).
76. California Department of Education, "California Schools Busting at the
Seams," September 3, 1991. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 210.
77. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 20.
78. Garrett Hardin, Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population
Taboos (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 285.
79. McCarthy, A Colony of the World, p. 109.
80 Linda Chavez, Commentary (September 1998): 12‑130.
81. Linda Chavez, "The Failure of Bilingual Education," Chicago Tribune, July
30, 1997, sec. 1, p. 11.
82. The lower estimate came from the Census Bureau which has consistently
underestimated the growth in the Spanish‑speaking population. The higher
estimate came form Carlos Fuentes, The Futurist (January/February 1993): 48‑49.
83. Georgie Anne Geyer, "America Into Splinters," The Social Contract (Summer
84. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 61.
87. Ibid., p. 64.
88. McCarthy, A Colony of the World, p. 64.
89. Editorial, "Crossing the Border of Acceptability," Chicago Tribune, April
28, 1997, sec. 1, p. 12.
90. Special Report, "Global Mafia," Newsweek (December 13. 1993).
91. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 77.
92. William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged, The Inner City, the
Underclass, and Poverty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 36,
93. The Federation for American Immigration Reform, A Tale of Ten Cites
(Washington, D.C.: The Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1995), pp.
94. For example, Donald Mann argues that the optimal population for the United
States would be as low as 125 to 150 million. "Why We Need Smaller U.S.
Population and How We Can Achieve It," NPG Forum (July 1992).
95. Jon Van, "Population Nearing Limit, Some Warn," Chicago Tribune, February
20, 1995, sec. 1, p. 3.
96. Meredith Berke, "An Environmental Income Statement for Immigration,"
Social Contract (Summer 1993): 266.
97. Lindsey Grant, "Waiting for Al," NPG Forum (February 1995): 3.
98. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 235.
99. Ibid., p. 235.
100. Lawrence Auster, The Path to National Suicide: An Essay on Immigration and
Multiculturalism (Monterey, Va.: The American Immigration Control Foundation,
1990), pp. 60‑61.
101. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multiculture Society (Whittle Direct Books, 1991).
102. Stanley Lieberson, A Piece of the Pie: Black and White Immigrants Since
1880 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980): pp. 368‑69. Cited by
Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, The Underclass, and Poverty, p.
103. Southern Poverty Law Center, Klanwatch (April 1993): 1.
104. Southern Poverty Law Center, Intelligence Report 74 (August 1974): 1.
105. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 49.
106. Santa Barbara News Press, October 22, 1995.
107. Dr. Jose Angel Gutierrez, speech given in conference entitled: "The
Immigration Crisis, Proposition 187: A Post Election Policy Analysis on its
Implications," sponsored by Ernesto Galarza Public Policy and Humanities
Research Institute, University of California, January 13‑14, 1995.
108. Leon Bouvier, Old Dominion
University, unpublished estimates. Cited by Lawrence Auster, The Path to National
Suicide (Monterey, Va.: The American Immigration Control Foundation, 1990), p.
Latino immigrants average about 91 on IQ tests. Whether this reflects bias on
the part of IQ tests has long been a subject of debate. Other immigrant groups
have been able to improve their IQ scores over time. However, given the
increasing correlation between IQ and economic attainment, it is a cause of
concern. See Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve:
Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (New York: Free Press, 1994)
110. Michael Lind, The Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth
American Revolution (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 14. Cited by Beck, The Case
Against Immigration, p. 223.
111. Lawrence Harrison, "We Don't Cause Latin American Troubles ‑Latin Culture
Does," Washington Post, June 29, 1986. Cited by Auster, Path to National
Suicide, p. 44.
112. National Catholic Register (November 8, 1992). Quoted by Lutton and Tanton,
The Immigration Invasion, p. 144.
113. Donald L. Huddle, "The Net Costs of Immigration: The Facts, The Trends and
The Critics," released by the Carrying Capacity Network (October 22, 1996).
114. Jeffrey S. Passel and Rebecca L. Clark, "How Much Do Immigrants Really
Cost? A Reappraisal of Huddle's `The Cost of Immigrants,' " The Urban Institute
(February 1994): 1. See also, Jeffrey S. Passel, "Immigrants and Taxes: A
Reappraisal of Huddle's `The Cost of Immigrants,"' The Urban Institute (January,
115. National Research Council, The New Americans: Economic, Demographic and
Fiscal Effects of Immigration (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997).
116. An analysis by Steven Camarota of the Center for Immigration Studies
examines just the incremental impact of immigration based upon the NCR analysis,
i.e., he ignores the potential lost wage increases due to immigration. Based
upon his analysis, he poses the ethical question: "Is it right to make the
poorest 10 percent of the population 5 percent poorer so that the rest of
society can be made two tenths of one percent richer?" See "Immigration's
Effects on Jobs and Wages," Immigration Review (Summer 1997): 1‑5.
117. Lief Jensen, International Immigration Review (Spring 1988). Cited by
Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 9.
118. GAO/HEHS‑95‑58 (February 1995). It was not only Hispanics who were
receiving welfare benefits prior to 1996. Twenty‑nine percent of the Vietnamese
immigrants were on welfare and 55 percent of Chinese senior citizens who came
into the United States
since 1980 were on welfare. Many were quite well off but have discovered that by
transferring their assets to their children they could claim welfare benefits,
such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicare. In fact, the fastest
growing component of the budget until welfare reform was SSI. In 1994, nearly
738,000 noncitizen residents received SSI, up from only 127,000 in 1982; that's
a 580 percent increase in only twelve years. By 1995, SSI and Medicaid to
nonresidents was costing Americans $12 billion a year and was projected to rise
to $67 billion by the year 2004. (Robert Rector, "A Retirement Home for
Immigrants," Intellectual Ammunition, The Heartland Institute (May/June 1995)).
It was hoped that the 1996 welfare reform would significantly cut that
projection, but given the backpedaling of Congress, it is now questionable
whether we can curb the growth of SSI significantly.
119. Herrnstein and Murray,
The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, pp. 359‑364.
120. Ibid., p. 360. Although the mean IQ scores of native born Latinos are seven
points higher than immigrant Latinos, they are still well below Asian and
European immigrants, and almost one standard deviation below the overall
national native born mean (i.e., their average score places them at the 84th
121. Garrett Hardin, "There Is No Global Population Problem," The Humanist
122. Leon Bouvier, What If... ? Immigration Decisions: What Could Have Been,
What Could Be (Federation of American Immigration Reform, October 1994), p. 3.
123. Gregory Spenser, "Demographic Implications of an Aging United States
Population Structure During the 1990 to 2030 Period," Futures Research Quarterly
(Fall 1990): 26.
124. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 153.
125. Robert Versola, "The West Is the Real Pirate," World Press Review (October
126. Peter Skerry, "Hispanic Job Discrimination Exaggerated," Wall Street
Journal, April 27, 1990.
127. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 115.
128. Vernon Briggs Jr., "Income Disparity and Unionism: The Workplace Influences
of Post 1965 Immigration Policy," The Inequality Paradox: Growth of Income
Disparity, eds. James A. Auerbach and Richard S. Belous (Washington, D.C.:
National Policy Association Report, #288, 1998), p. 112.
129. San Francisco Chronicle, July 6, 1992.
130. Christian Science Monitor, December 27, 1991. Cited by Lutton, The
Immigration Invasion, p. 43.
131. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 189.
132. "Bellboys with B.A.s," Time, November 22, 1993, p. 36.
133. Malcolm W Brown, "Job Outlook Gloomy for Some Ph.D.s," Dallas Morning News,
July 30, 1995. Cited by Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 147.
134. Federation for Immigration Reform, Immigration Report, May 1994, pp. 1, 4.
135. "Audit Says Visa Program Hurts U.S. Workers," Chicago Tribune, April 16,
1996, sec. 1, p. 10.
136. David C. Korton, When Corporations Rule the World (West Hartford, Conn.,
and San Francisco: Kumarian Press and Berrett‑Koehler Publishers, Inc., 1995),
137. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, pp. 130‑31.
138. New York Times, March 1, 1992. Cited by Federation for Immigration Reform,
Immigration Report (April 1992).
139. Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1995, sec. 2, p. 1.
140. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 111ff.
141. For a chilling description of how a peaceful town can suddenly be beset
with problems usually associated with the inner city, see Beck, The Case Against
Immigration, Chapter 6.
142. Kaufman, "Help Unwanted," p. Al.
143. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 54.
144. Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p. 123.
145. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 52.
146. Florian Moran, "Study of Immigrants Arriving in Chicago Between 1992 and
1995," Unpublished Monograph, 1996.
147. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 52.
148. A federal judge ruled that Chinese immigrants should be allowed asylum
because of Chinese abortion and sterilization policies. Chicago Tribune, August
8, 1994, sec. 1, p. 16. See also Lutton and Tanton, The Immigration Invasion, p.
149. Ray Moseley, "Briton Retools Immigration Laws," Chicago Tribune, January
150. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 53.
151. Federation of American Immigration Reform, "What to Do about Refugees?"
Issue Brief (March 1993).
152. Carole Douglis, "Images of Home," Wilderness (Fall 1993): 12.
153. Robert Costanza, "Balancing Humans in the Biosphere‑Escaping the
Overpopulation Trap," NPG Forum (July 1990).
154. Paul Klugman, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age
of Diminishing Expectations (New York: W W Norton and Company, 1994), pp.
155. Roy Beck, "Immigration by the Numbers," videotape (Petoskey, Mich.: The
Social Contract Press, 1996).
156. E. O. Wilson, Consilience (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), p. 282.
157. President, Economic Report of the President Transmitted to Congress,
February 1998, table B‑47, p. 336.
158. Garrett Hardin, "There Is No Global Population Problem," The Humanist
(July/August 1989). See also, Don Feddler, "Granddad and the New Tribe,"
Social Contract (Summer 1993): 287.
159. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, Report of the
Commission on Population Growth and the American Future (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1972).
160. Select Commission on Immigration Policy and the National Interest
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981).
Commission on Immigration Reform, Legal Immigration: Setting Priorities (June
162. Harold Galleon, "Bursting at the Seams," The Social Contract (Summer 1993):
163. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 16.
164. Ibid., pp. 243‑49.
165. Ibid., p. 112.
166. Karen Brandon, "Citizenship a Hot Immigration Issue," Chicago Tribune,
August 24, 1997, sec. 1, p.3.
167. Georgie Anne Geyer, "Europe Is Seeking New Commitments from Its
Tribune, September 2, 1994, sec. 1, p. 21.
168. The Congressional Globe, "The Debates and Proceedings of the First Session
of the Thirty‑Ninth Congress," City of Washington, Congressional Globe Office,
1866. The Congressional Globe was the forerunner of the Congressional Record.
169. Chicago Tribune, August 31, 1997, sec. 1, p. 3.
170. Beck, The Case Against Immigration, p. 53. Beck quotes Roger Winter,
director of the nonprofit U.S. Committee for Refugees.
171. U.S. Department of justice, 1996 Statistical Yearbook of the
Naturalization and Immigration Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1997), table 27, p. 87.
172. Lindsey Grant, "Free Trade and Cheap Labor: The President's Dilemma," p. 4.
173. Hardin, Living Within Limits, p. 276. The plaque encouraging the world to
send us "your huddled masses yearning to be free," was added much later by a
group of private citizens and never authorized or endorsed by the United States
Congress. It was a noble‑sounding sentiment, but in a world were the huddled
masses number in the billions, it is pragmatically impossible.
174. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1996,
table 3, p. 9, Lowest Series. Because of today's age distribution, the
population would peak at about 291,000 in the year 2030 before declining
175. Ibid., tables 93 and 94, p. 77.
176. Calculated by author from Statistical Abstract, 1998, table 117, p. 89.
177. ZPG Reporter (August 1990): 3. See also The Economist (March 23, 1990): 30.
178. According to the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, there were
17,077 unintended births in 1995, of which 19.6 percent were unwanted.
Statistical Abstract, 1998, table 117, p. 89.
179. ZPG Reporter (December 1990): 7.
180. ZPG Reporter (December 1988): 2.
181. Lester R. Brown and Kathleen Newland, Abortion Liberalization: A Worldwide
Trend (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1976). Cited by Brown, Building A
Sustainable Society, p. 154.
182. J. A. Sweet and R. R. Rindfuss, "Those Ubiquitous Fertility Trends: United
States, 1945‑1979," Social Biology 30 (1983): 127‑139. Cited by Herrnstein and
Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, p.
183. Herrnstein and Murray,
The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, pp. 343‑356.
184. Charles Murray, Losing Ground (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 19.
185. For a complete discussion of the distinction between human life and
personhood and its relevance to the issue of abortion, see Joseph L. Daleiden,
The Science of Morality, chapter 15.
186. James W Prescott, "The Abortion of the Silent Scream," The Humanist
(September/October 1986): 10.
188. "No Relief in Sight," ZPG Reporter (February 1991): 3.
189. For example, David Pimentel, entomology professor at Cornell University,
estimates 200 million for the United States
and 2 billion for the world. (Social Contract [Summer 1993]: 286). The
organization Negative Population Growth reports on a number of studies that
would confirm their own recommended range of between 100 and 150 million people.
(Human Survival 17, no. 1 [Spring 1991 ]: 1).
190. Anseley Coale, "The Demographic Transition," Proceedings of the
International Population Conference, Liege, vol. 1, pp. 53‑72. Quoted by John
R. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," NPG Forum
191. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," p. 3.
192. Chicago Tribune, September 22, 1991.
193. Gary S. Becker, A Treatise on Family (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1991), p. 15.
194. Donald Mann, "Why We Need Smaller U.S. Population and How to Achieve It,"
NPG Forum (July 1992).
195. Hardin, Living Within Limits, p. 272.
196. Weeks, "How to Influence Fertility: The Experience so Far," p.3. Weeks also
mentions several other methods for undeveloped countries such as improved
community infrastructure where community goals are met, or educational placement
for first or second children but not higher‑order births. For obvious reasons
such incentives would not be appropriate or workable in this country.
197. Herman E. Daly, Toward a Steady State Economy (San Francisco: W H. Freeman
and Company, 1973), p. 158.
198. Bryce, The
Commonwealth, cited by Arthur M. Schlesinger in The Disuniting of America:
Reflections on a Multiculture Society, p. 7.
Used with permission of the author.
* This essay is from Chapter 4, Daleiden, Joseph L., 1999, The American
Dream: Can it survive the 21st Century?, Prometheus Books, New
The separation into three parts is not in the original paper; it is done to make
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2. Return to immigration