Minnesotans For Sustainability

 

Sustainable:  A society that balances the environment, other life forms, and human interactions over an indefinite time period.

 

 

 

U.S. Sustainable Population Policy Project

Planning Document

June 20, 1998

  

"The time has come to speak more openly of a population policy. By this I mean not just capping the growth when the population hits the wall, as in India and China, but a policy based on a rational solution of this problem: what, in the judgment of its informed citizenry, is the optimal population.... The goal of an optimal population will require addressing, for the first time, the full range of processes that lock together the economy and the environment, the national interest and the global commons, the welfare of the present generation with that of future generations. The matter should be aired not only in think tanks but in public debate."
    E.O. Wilson, "The Diversity of Life", p. 329

 

Project Title: U.S. Sustainable Population Policy Project

Project Focus: A multi-phase project leading to a population policy for the United States to achieve long-term environmental and economic sustainability

Executive Committee*

Irwin Sonny Fox, Senior Vice-President, Population Communications International

Marilyn Hempel, Executive Director, Population Coalition (Leagues of Women Voters)

Dr. Doug LaFollette (Co-chair), Secretary of State, Wisconsin

Frederick A.B. Meyerson, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

Dr. David Pimentel (Co-chair), College of Agriculture/Life Sciences, Cornell University

Bill Ryerson, President, Ryerson & Associates, past Executive Vice President of Population Communications International

Beth Curry Thomas, Founder, Past President, Planned Parenthood of Hilton Head, SC

Carole Wilmoth, National Audubon Society, Human Population & Resource Use Department

*All titles used for identification purposes only does not imply endorsement by any organization or entity.

 

Executive Summary

The fundamental threat to the health of the planet and its inhabitants posed by human population pressures has been studied by international scientists and policy makers for many years, particularly during the last three decades. A number of countries have instituted policies intended to help stabilize their respective populations. Unfortunately, the United States is not one of these countries.

Despite efforts begun in 1970, with the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, and participation in three international population conferences, the United States has failed to adopt an official policy identifying population stabilization as a national goal. The United States has grown to the third most populated country in the world, and continues to grow by about 3 million people each year. Because of this growth, combined with its high level of consumption, the U.S. population continues to exert ever higher tolls on the national and global environment.

In an effort to address these issues, this project proposes a three year interdisciplinary project that will combine national polling and focus groups, a working conference of experts, a national population policy conference and follow-up activities to develop and implement a coherent, fair U.S. population policy. The project will produce specific population policy goals by incorporating recent data and building upon the recommendations of previous national and international commissions and conferences. The project will seek to incorporate the views of as broad a range of individuals and organizations as possible, including (but not limited to) environmentalists, family planning and reproductive health organizations, scientists, civic groups, religious leaders, educators, minorities, social justice groups, corporations, and the media.

The project will have five parts:

* National Population Policy Focus Groups and Participant Organization Recommendations. Through a series of focus groups, national polling, and citizen dialog sessions channeled through participating organizations, the project will measure and assess American attitudes and opinions concerning current social, economic, environmental, religious and psychological issues related to U.S. population and public policy. In addition, cosponsors, participating organizations and other interested parties will be invited to participate in this process by expressing their views on the subjects covered by the focus groups and on other issues that may relate to national population policy.

* Pre-conference Working Sessions. The project will convene approximately 10 specialists representing the environmental, agricultural, biological, health, energy, ethical, public policy, communication, economic, and social science disciplines for a 4-day working session. The specialists will review and integrate the data and recommendations of the focus groups and participant organizations, as well as the work of past commissions and conferences, particularly the U.N. Cairo population conference, in order to provide a focus for national consideration for the development of a comprehensive and equitable U.S. population policy. The specialists will prepare a draft outlining various options for a population policy and stabilization levels, exploring the costs and benefits of each option. They will make their recommendation as to the best U.S. population policy among the options that they consider. The specialists will also recommend various approaches to achieve acceptance and implementation of a population policy and will discuss and finalize the topics and format for the regional preparatory conferences and the National Population Policy Conference. This draft will be reviewed by approximately 20 additional multidisciplinary specialists and

* amended where appropriate. The draft will then be sent to the participating organizations (cosponsors) in preparation for consideration at the Prepcons.

* National Population Policy Preparatory Conferences (Prepcons). The draft U.S. Population Policy options and recommendations developed in the working session and suggested approaches to achieving acceptance and implementation of such a policy will be reviewed and discussed in regional preparatory conferences on national population policy (Prepcons). These conferences will be patterned after the "PREPCOM" process which occurred in preparation for the 1994 UN Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the 1992 UN environmental conference in Rio. All participating organizations will be encouraged to comment on the recommendations, to offer suggestions or alternative proposals, and to discuss key issues. The Prepcons will include plenary discussions as well as sessions focusing on particular aspects of population policy. At the conclusion of the Prepcon process, the participants of the pre-conference working session will re-convene to consider changes in light of the comments made and amendments offered during the Prepcons. The recommendations for a U.S. Population Policy and suggested approaches to achieving acceptance and implementation of such a policy will be presented for discussion and final adoption at the National Population Policy Conference.

* National Population Policy Conference. The project will convene a national conference, attended by national, regional and grassroots organizations and individuals to discuss the recommendations and concepts developed in the pre-conference working session and preparatory conferences, to arrive at a coherent, fair, national population policy, and to identify avenues for its implementation.

* National Population Policy Implementation. The project will engage in activities (identified during the previous process) designed to encourage adoption and implementation of a coherent, fair, national population policy, including a call for establishment of a national commission to formulate a population policy for the United States. Strategies for generating broad-based support will be generated through cooperation with governmental and non-governmental entities and the media. Follow up activities, including the publication of two books, will also serve to educate the American public about the recommendations of the project, population-related issues, and the social, economic and environmental ramifications of population on both the national and international level.
 

Project Rationale

Despite the fact that population growth in the U.S. has serious domestic and international ramifications, there has been relatively little public discussion of the issue in this country. Recent research indicates that there is a serious lack of knowledge among citizens of the United States about population issues, and an even sketchier comprehension of the link between population growth and environmental degradation.1 Nevertheless, according to a February 1996 Roper Poll, the majority of Americans want to see U.S. population levels no greater, or smaller, than today's.

These facts speak strongly for the need for a U.S. Population Project of the nature outlined in this proposal. Unless we reassess our rate of growth and patterns of development, our children and future generations in this nation face the specter of a degraded environment, reduced freedom from disease and poverty, less freedom in their choices of food and recreation, and a declining standard of living.

Historical Background

Beginning in the early 1970's there have been several studies regarding United States population growth. These studies have provided information and insights to population developments and a framework to resolve the implications of continued domestic (and international) population growth.

The first serious attempt to develop a national population policy was in Chicago, June 7-11, 1970, when the First National Congress on Optimum Population and Environment (COPE) was convened. This was a citizens' movement supported widely by environmental, minority and other groups. In the end, although many initiatives were started, the energy created by this conference did not achieve the desired goals of moving the country to adopt a population policy.

President Nixon's Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, (commonly referred to as the "Rockefeller Commission"), released its report in 1972 after two years of deliberation. Its conclusions emphasized the need "to make population, and all it means, explicit on the Nation's agenda, to signal its impact on our national life, to sort out the issues, and to propose how to start toward a better state of affairs. By its very nature, population is a continuing concern and should receive continuing attention." Moreover, the Commission concluded that "... in the long run, no substantial benefits will result from further growth of the Nation's population, rather that the gradual stabilization of our population through voluntary means would contribute significantly to the Nation's ability to solve its problems." Despite this expression of urgency, the Commission's report fell largely on deaf ears within the federal government and received virtually no coverage by the media.

In early 1974 the Nixon administration undertook a comprehensive study, "National Security Study Memorandum 200", of population growth and its implications for United States national security and overseas interests. The United States contributed many of the findings and recommendations of this report to the draft plan of the United Nations World Population Conference to be held in Bucharest.

Later, in 1974, the United Nations held its first international conference on population in Bucharest. The US delegation was led by Casper Weinberger, President Nixon's Secretary of HEW. For the first time, overpopulation was identified as a critical global issue. The United States is a signatory to this first international policy on population.

In 1984, the second UN conference in Mexico City resulted in a further development of international population policy. The U.S. is a signatory of that agreement.

In 1993, 58 academies of science, including the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, met in New Delhi to examine the issue of population growth. Three broad conclusions came from that historic meeting. One was that population was clearly the most urgent problem facing the world. The second conclusion was that this was both a social and political problem. Finally, the academies of science concluded that population growth and the increased use of resources are too rapid for science and technology to rescue society from the consequences of overpopulation. The National Academy of Sciences is a signatory to that document.

In 1994, the third UN Conference of Population and Development took place in Cairo. 180 countries signed the plan of action underscoring the need for all the countries to deal with population and the related social issues in as compelling a manner as possible. The United States agreed to the terms of that document but has not to date developed or implemented a coherent national population policy.

In 1995, the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD), was appointed by President Clinton to help the United States develop a national strategy for sustainable development following the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment & Development in Rio. They acknowledged the integral relationship between population growth and sustainable development, declaring the need to "move towards stabilization of the U.S. population."2 However, the PCSD failed to establish a timetable to meet this objective. Moreover, our government has failed to formulate a clear plan to implement this recommendation, nor have any substantive measures been taken in this context since the release of the PCSD report.

Recent initiatives on population issues have focused on needs and methods to reduce population growth rates in developing nations, the locus of 90% of annual increases in the world population.3 While there is certainly a clear, immediate need to confront the specter of burgeoning numbers in such nations, there is an equally compelling rationale to place the spotlight on the population policies, or absence of such policies, in the third most populated nation in the world - the United States.

The current annual population growth rate of nearly 1% in the United States is three times greater than the growth rate of the average developed country.4 The United States is growing at a rate ten times faster than Europe, and more rapidly than some developing countries, including South Korea, Singapore, Jamaica, and Uruguay.5

The U.S. population has doubled during the past 60 years. If the United States continues to grow at its current rate, its population will double again to about 540 million within the next 70 years and could grow to nearly 1 billion by the end of the 21st century. Contributing to our population growth is a disturbing social development. The United States has the highest rate of unplanned pregnancies in the industrialized world as well as the highest teenage pregnancy rate,6 with eight out of ten of these pregnancies unplanned.7 These facts are particularly troubling in the light of work by several investigators who report that the U.S. has already exceeded its long term sustainable carrying capacity, assuming that a quality standard of living is to be maintained and critical ecosystems preserved for future generations.8

In particular, a growing population reduces choices and the freedom of individuals. With increasing numbers of people in the U.S. we will have less freedom from disease - during approximately a decade, deaths from infectious diseases in the U.S. have increased 58%.9 In addition, with growing numbers of people we will have less freedom of food choice and recreation, less freedom from air and water pollution, less freedom to choose jobs and where we can live, less freedom from poverty, and less freedom from urban stress in the form of wilderness and other natural places of solitude, and a generally declining American standard of living.

Globally, each additional American has a disproportionate impact on the world's environment because of our unsustainable levels of resource use, pollution, and waste production.10 As authors Lindsey Grant and Leon Bouvier recently concluded: "The United States, because of its size and consumption habits, is the most destabilizing entity within Earth's fragile ecosystem." The U.S. and six other industrial countries account for 45% of greenhouse gas emissions,11 with United States per capita emissions five times greater than the per capita average of the world. Put another way, population growth in the United States has an impact on global warming about equal to China's and India's combined, and two and a half times greater than all the nations on the African continent.12

The studies conducted over the prior two decades have discussed the issues and consequences of continuing U.S. and world population growth. Importantly, these reports have also provided a framework with which to begin a national conversation around the issue of population growth and policy. Recent American presidents of both parties have described the issue of American population growth and stabilization as one of paramount importance, to both our country and the world.13 In view of the long history of largely unsuccessful efforts to constructively deal with this significant national issue, it is time for this country to openly discuss, debate and create a coherent and fair population policy.

Project Overview

The ramifications of continued population growth in the United States provide a profound need for developing and implementing a national, coherent, and fair population policy. In an effort to stimulate such an initiative this project will focus on U.S. population issues, including formulation of a plan to establish and implement a U.S. population policy in this nation characterized by fairness and equity. These recommendations would be drawn in part from the 1972 Commission on Population Growth and the American Future (Rockefeller Commission), the 1992 United Nations Convention on Environment & Development (Rio Conference), the 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference and Population and Development (Cairo Conference) and the 1995 recommendations of the President's Commission on Sustainable Development.

As described in the Executive Summary, the project will have five parts:

* Focus Groups and Participant Organization Recommendations

* Pre-conference Working Sessions

* Preparatory Conferences (Prepcons)

* National Conference

* Implementation and Publications

This project is unique. Rather than sponsoring a one-time event, the goal is to establish an ongoing dialogue and series of working relationships among an interdisciplinary group of project participants. These participants will utilize the Pre-conference Working Sessions, Prepcons, and the National Population Policy Conference to plan a subsequent campaign (the National Population Policy Implementation phase) to advocate adoption of a coherent, fair, population policy in the U.S.

The National Population Policy Implementation campaign will be launched in cooperation with other key participants, including political leaders, national environmental and population groups, religious groups, educators, social justice groups, civic groups and grassroots organizations and others. The project will complement the work of current population stabilization efforts of many organizations by providing a central policy focus.

A. Focus Groups and Participant Organization Recommendations

As the first component of the project, focus groups will be used to more fully assess the values, attitudes and opinions that Americans have concerning reproductive decisions, reproductive health care, immigration, consumption, population stabilization and population policy. The project will construct a series of surveys and/or focus groups that will provide information regarding the following issues:

* Knowledge of Americans about rates of population growth in this country and in other nations

* Knowledge of Americans about per capita and aggregate levels of resource use and pollution resulting from the U.S. population

* Factors related to reproductive decision making and family size in the U.S.; e.g., the availability of reproductive health care and contraception; the status of women; social, economic and environmental factors; and other considerations that motivate people to have a particular family size.

* Attitudes toward family planning and perceptions as to information about and access to family planning and birth control

* Attitudes toward U.S. population size, stabilization policy, and immigration policy

* Sources of information that can cause individuals to reassess their perceptions of optimal family size and appropriate population levels in the United States

In addition, the project will work with population, environmental, reproductive health care, social and other organizations with widespread memberships and encourage them to participate in this process. Cosponsors, participating organizations and other interested parties will be invited to express their views on the subjects covered by the focus groups and on other issues that may relate to national population policy. In preparing those comments, participating organizations may want to poll their members or hold discussions about the particular issues. Questionnaires will be used so that the comments of participating organizations can be readily organized and compared for use in the pre-conference working sessions.

B. Pre-Conference Working Sessions

To enhance the prospects for achieving the goal of formulating a coherent and fair U.S. population policy, the project will convene an initial expert, brain-storming and planning session to build upon the results of the national population policy focus groups and the contributions of participant organizations.

* The project will draw upon the panel format employed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as a model for these sessions. The approach of the Academy is to have a small group of multidisciplinary specialists work outside the glare of publicity to assess the issues and develop constructive, sound policies for implementation. Approximately 10 specialists representing the environmental, agricultural, biological, health, energy, ethical, public policy, communication, economic, and social science disciplines will meet for a 4-day working session to review the new data and the work of past commissions and conferences in order to provide a focus for national consideration for the development of a comprehensive and equitable U.S. population policy. The specialists will prepare a draft outlining various options for a population policy and stabilization levels, exploring the costs and benefits of each option. They will make a recommendation as to the best U.S. population policy of the options that they considered. The specialists will also recommend various approaches to achieve acceptance and implementation of a population policy and will discuss and finalize the topics and format for the regional preparatory conferences and the National Population Policy Conference. This draft will be reviewed by approximately 20 additional multidisciplinary specialists and amended if appropriate. The draft will then be sent to the participating organizations (cosponsors) in preparation for consideration at the Prepcons.

The purpose of this Working Session is to:

* Discuss the results of the focus group study (described above) to identify the discrete attitudes and values that underpin both the reproductive decision-making of Americans and perception of the policy objectives and consequences related to immigration.

* Review and consider contributions of participant organizations (cosponsors).

* Review and assess demographic data regarding fertility and immigration rates that affect the rate of growth and potential stabilization for the U.S. population.

* Prepare a draft which outlines and analyzes various options for U.S. population policy and stabilization, exploring the costs and benefits of each option, and make a recommendation as the best policy option.

* Identify a set of strategies which could influence attitudes and values leading toward the stabilizing of the U.S. population. Discuss avenues for achieving these objectives, including sources of funding and support from political leaders, national population and environmental organizations, civic, social justice, and religious groups, educators, individuals, corporations, grassroots organizations, and the media.

* Develop a tentative U.S. Population Policy and suggest various approaches to achieving acceptance and implementation of such a policy.

* Identify the stakeholders and key decision makers in this debate, in order that such groups and individuals may attend the National Population Policy Conference.

* Discuss the optimal structure of the National Population Policy Conference, with the objectives of maximizing attendance and prompting publicity by the national media.

The results of the initial survey/focus group research, along with the contributions of the participating grassroots organizations will be provided to the expert participants prior to the Pre-Conference Working Session. Each participant will be asked to draft a 3-5 page memorandum, in advance, for presentation at the session. The memorandum should describe the potential role of each participant's respective discipline in addressing the concerns, attitudes and values expressed in the population focus groups with the goal of gaining public support for stabilizing the U.S. population. Attendees of the Pre-Conference Working Sessions may also make presentations at the National Population Policy Conference.

C. Preparatory Conferences (Prepcons)

The draft developed in the initial working session, which outlines and analyzes various options for US population policy, makes a recommendation as the best policy option, and suggests approaches to achieving acceptance and implementation of such a policy, will be reviewed and discussed in regional preparatory conferences on national population policy (Prepcons). These conferences will be patterned after the "PREPCOM" process which occurred in preparation for the 1994 UN Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the 1992 UN environmental conference in Rio. All participating organizations will be encouraged to comment on the recommendations, to offer suggestions or alternative proposals, and to discuss key issues. The Prepcons will include plenary discussions as well as sessions focusing on particular aspects of population policy.

At the conclusion of the Prepcon process, the participants of the pre-conference working session will re-convene to consider changes in light of the comments made and amendments offered during the Prepcons. The recommendations for a U.S. Population Policy and suggested approaches to achieving acceptance and implementation of such a policy will be presented for discussion and final adoption at the National Population Policy Conference.

D. National Conference

The National Population Policy Conference will be attended by national, regional and grassroots organizations and individuals with an interest in establishing a coherent, fair, U.S. population policy and identifying avenues for its implementation. The purpose of the working conference will be several-fold:

* To present and consider the recommendations and concepts developed at the Pre-Conference Working Session and Prepcons, with the ultimate goal being the recommendations for and adoption of a national population policy.

* To review, amend and endorse an equitable, population policy in the United States as a component of efforts to realize the goals of long-term sustainability. For instance, the goal for a U.S. population policy might be to maintain the quality of life and individual freedom in this country for everyone and for generations to come, while stabilizing or reducing consumption levels.

* To communicate the importance of this policy to both policy makers and the general public. This goal will be accomplished through publicity associated with the conference and publication of a report on the conference that will be disseminated widely to federal, state and local policy makers, leaders in the private and non-profit sectors and other relevant sectors. After the conference, two books evaluating population growth's effects and recommended policy responses will be produced, one intended for an academic audience and another for the general public. A television documentary focusing on the conference is also planned.

* To seek commitments from political leaders; national population, reproductive health care, and environmental and women's organizations; civic, social justice, and religious groups, educators, individuals, corporations, grassroots organizations, and the media to work towards a coherent, fair, national population policy.

* To establish the groundwork for working groups that will continue the work of the project after the conference. The contemplated responsibilities of these working groups are described at the conclusion of this document. Attendees will be drawn primarily from the ranks of cosponsors and representatives of other important sectors of society, including political leaders, the media and the religious community.

The conference is planned as a three-day event. On the first day attendees will listen to presentations and engage in discussion regarding background on U.S. population growth and population policy and potential policy alternatives. On the second day they will engage in discussions regarding fertility, immigration and consumption and will discuss the role of stakeholders in this dialogue, including minorities and people of color, emphasizing that all citizens share in the process and the outcome. The third day will be spent finalizing national population policy recommendations and focusing on implementation strategies.

E. Implementation and Publications

In order to meet its objectives the project will:

* Produce a report outlining conference findings containing recommendations for a comprehensive and equitable national population policy.

* Seek to directly present this report to relevant policy makers in the executive and legislative branches of the federal government and members of the media.

* Publish two books reflecting an expansion of each participant's contributions at the Pre-Conference Working Session and National Population Policy Conference. One book will be oriented to policy makers and academic researchers in the field of population, while the second will be designed for the general public, summarizing the conclusions and recommendations developed at the conference and calling for citizen involvement in a campaign to stabilize U.S. population within the next few decades.

* Formulate a program to coordinate efforts with grassroots organizations to achieve the objectives of the project through strategies such as presentations to local civic groups and schools, letters to local newspapers, production of programs on population issues for local access cable stations and lobbying of local, state and national government representatives.

* Involve the media in a range of presentations over a period of time which will magnify our impact and further assure that this issue will remain on the public agenda.

* Establish several working groups that will focus on formulating solutions and establishing relationships with policy makers, the media, educators, non-governmental organizations, community groups and others to implement a coherent, fair, U.S. population policy. Suggested working groups include: science/research, education/curriculum, religious, mass communications, economic/business; government affairs.

* Optionally convene a second round of focus groups to assess the prospective effectiveness of programs formulated by the participants in this campaign.

* Optionally convene a follow-up conference to assess progress in achieving project objectives and suggest modification of strategies in the face of empirical information.


Project Cosponsors and Participating Organizations14

On the basis of earlier drafts of this document, about twenty organizations have signed on as participants and cosponsors in this project, as of May 1997. A current list of the cosponsoring and participant organizations is available on request.

U.S. Sustainable Population Policy Project Draft List of Project Advisers (10) by Category

Demography

Keyfitz, Nathan; Dept. of Sociology, Harvard University -- Motivations and Incentives for Families to Encourage 1-2 Child Families

Economics

Buttel, Fred; Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin
Jobs and Redistribution of Resources
Daly, Herman; University of Maryland
Ecological Economics

Government

Sadik, Nafis; UNFPA

Media/Advocacy

Kalb, Marvin; Harvard University
The Use of the Mass Media to Influence Reproductive Decision Making

Politics/Policy

Ryerson, William; Population Communications International
The Use of the Mass Media to Influence Reproductive Decision Making

Religion/Social Justice

Power-Bratton, Susan; Professor of Wild Ecology and Christian Ecology, Whitworth College (Spokane, WA) Author of Six Billion and More
Adams, Geri; Editor of IMPACT, Alexandria, VA
Immigration's impact on the black community

Science

Postel, Sandra; Worldwatch Institute, Population and its Contribution to Water Pollution;
Wilson, E.O.; author of "The Diversity of Life".

________

Draft List of Project Reviewers (22) by Category

Demography

Fornos, Werner; Population Institute
Cohen, Joel; Head of the Laboratory of Populations at Rockefeller University, author of "How Many People Can the Earth Support?"
Barlow, Robin; University of Michigan
The Relationship between Economic and Population Growth

Economics

Bouvier, Leon; Tulane University, or Vernon Briggs, Cornell University
History of U.S. Immigration Policy
Reppetto, Dr. Robert; World Resources Institute
Natural resource management and populations
Low, Bobbi; University of Michigan
How Economics Affect Fertility

Government

Wirth, Tim; Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs and ex-officio member of the President's Council on Sustainable Development

Media/Advocacy

Burke, Dr. Meredith; Hoover Foundation, Palo Alto, CA
Sociology of populations and teenage fertility
Maher, Dr. T. Michael; Department of Communication
University of Southwestern Louisiana, Media Framing and the Salience of the Population Issue in the United States.
Nancy Pearlman is a UN Nobel 500 Laureate who does great work with media and communications. She has produced award-winning tapes and videos, and focuses on pop/environmental issues.

Politics/Policy

Grant, Lindsey; former U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population, author of "Juggernaut"
Overview of U.S. Immigration Policy and History: How We Got Where We Are Today.
Lamm, Richard; Center for Public Policy (Denver), former Governor of Colorado
McNamara, Robert; former CIA director
deep interest in population issues
Schneider, Claudine; Chair, Renew America

Psychology

Wood, James W.; Dept. of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of Population Growth;

Religion/Social Justice

Nash, Jim; Churches Center for Public Policy
Sommers, Rev. Dr. Gordon L.; President, National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.-author, "A Call to Engagement for People of Faith, Concerning the 1994 UN ICPD."

Science

Abernethy, Dr. Virginia; Vanderbilt University, Tennessee
Author of the book, "Population Politics," and editor of the journal "Population and Environment"
Holdren, John; Harvard; Population's Impact on Energy Consumption.
Meadows, Donella; Environmental Policy, Dartmouth College
Women, Babies and the Environment
Giampietro, Mario; Nutrition, population and energy
Myers, Norman; Visiting Fellow of Green College, Oxford University, co-author of "Scarcity or Abundance? A Debate on the Environment"
______

1. Belden & Russonello, Report of Findings from Focus Groups on Population, Consumption, and the Environment, Executive Summary, July, 1993, at 2-4.
2. President's Council on Sustainable Development, U.S. Population and Sustainability, Chapter 6 (1995). This commitment serves as follow up also to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, at which the United States committed to a Program of Action that encourages all countries to establish population policies designed to ensure the sustainability of future generations.
3. Pimentel, D., R. Harman, M. Pacenza, J. Pecarsky, and M. Pimentel. (1994). "Natural resources and an optimum human population." Population and Environment 15: 347-369. See also, Pimentel, D. and M. Pimentel (1996). Food, Energy and Society. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. See also, Smith, R. Overpopulation and Overconsumption: Combating the Two Main Drivers of Global Destruction; BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, May 15, 1993, at 1285. See also, Grant, L. 1996. Juggernaut: Growth on a Finite Planet. Seven Locks Press, Santa Ana, CA. See also, Cohen, J.E. 1995. How Many People Can the Earth Support? Norton, New York, 1995.
4. "The United States . . . is the only major industrialized country in the world experiencing population growth on a significant scale." President's Council on Sustainable Development, Task Force Report on Population and Consumption (1995). See also Carrying Capacity Network, The Many Costs of Immigration - Money and More, 6 NETWORK BULLETIN, (Jan./Feb. 1996), at 2; McCall, S.M., The Quiet Crisis, HABITAT, Winter, 1995, at 14.
5. Holmes, supra note 2.
6. Hallerdin, J., J. Jacobsen and D. Sherman, Towards a National Population Policy, in NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY, THE ROAD FROM CAIRO (1994)
7. Holmes, H., The Unequal Burden, HABITAT, Winter, 1995, at 21. See also Rauber, P. Cribonometry, SIERRA, May/June, 1993
8. "Carrying capacity is the life (e.g. populations of plants, animals, humans) that a given amount of land can support." Waak, P., FAITH, JUSTICE & A HEALTHY WORLD (2d Ed. 1995). See also Keyfitz, N., Population and Development Within the Ecosphere: One View of the Literature, FOCUS, Winter, 1992.
9. Pimentel, D., M. Tort, L. D'Anna, A. Krawic, J. Berger, J. Rossman, F. Mugo, N. Doon, M. Shriberg, E.S. Howard, S. Lee, and J. Talbot. 1997. Increasing disease incidence: environmental degradation and population growth. Submitted to Science. See also, Platt, A.E.. 1996. Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Disease. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.
10. Ehrlich, P.R. and J. Holdren, The Impact of Population Growth, 171 SCIENCE, 1212-1217 (1971). As described by Ehrlich and Ehrlich: "The impact (I) of any group or nation on the environment is the product of its population's size (P) multiplied by per capita affluence (A) as measured by consumption, in turn multiplied by a measure of the damage done by the technologies (T) involved in supporting each unit of that consumption." U.S. EPA, The Population-Environment Connection (1995), at 19. See also, Paul R. Ehrlich & Anne H. Ehrlich, The Most Overpopulated Nation, in ELEPHANTS IN THE VOLKSWAGEN, (Lindsay Grant, ed. 1992).
11. Growth vs. Environment, BUSINESS WEEK, May 11, 1992.
12. Hall, C.A.S. et al., The Environmental Consequences of Having a Baby in the United States, 15 POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT, No. 6 (July, 1994).
13. As then Governor Reagan said, in 1974, "Our country and state have a special obligation to work toward the stabilization of our own population so as to credibly lead other parts of the world toward population stabilization." Ronald Reagan, Governor, State of California, Hearings before Subcommittee on Census and Population, 1974.
14. Project cosponsors support the principles outlined in this document, and endorse the development of a domestic population policy that addresses fertility, immigration and consumption.

Questions or requests for additional information regarding the U.S. Sustainable Population Policy Project may be directed to:

Carole Wilmoth
919 Vinecrest Lane
Richardson, TX, 75080;
Ph. 972-238-8805
Fax: 972-479-0322
E-mail <71634.217@compuserve.com> -or- <CLWilmoth@aol.com>.

 

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